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CHAPTER I.-— 1758-1804.— FormatioD of the Regiment- 
Uniform — Early History — Embarks on Foreign Service — Quartered 
in the Island of St. Vincent— Gibraltar— Ordered again to West 
Indies— Active Service in St. Domingo — Quartered in Jamaica, 
Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland — Returns to England— Second 
Battalion raised. 1 

CHAPTER XL— 1804-1817.— Services of 1st Battalion— Embark 
for Ceylon— Services in that Island, and on the Madras Coast — 
Moved to Bengal — ^The Nepaulese War — Embark for St. Helena 12 

CHAPTER III.— 1804-1809.— Services of 2iid Battalion- 
Stationed in Ireland until 1809 — Embark on active Service — 
Arrival in Portugal — March from Lisbon to Coimbra — The advance 
on Oporto — The passage of the Douro — Anecdote. 28 

CHAPTER IV.— 1809-1810.— Services of 2nd BattaUon con- 
tinued — Pursuit of Soult — Return to Oporto — Encamped at 
Abrantes — Attached to the 2nd Division — Position of the French 
Army Corps — The advance into Spain — Don Gregorio de Cuesta — 
The Battle of Talavera. 86 

CHAPTER v.— 1810-1811.— Services of the 2nd BattaUon 
continued— Massena invades Portugal — Busaco — Lines of Torres 
Vedras — Retreat of Massena— Forward movement of the Allies 
— Flying Column into Andalusia — ^The battle of Albuhera. . . 47 

CHAPTER VL— 1811-1813. -Services of the 2nd Battalion 
continued — Arroyo de Molinos — Changes in the Brigade — The 
66th reinforced — Retreat to Coria— General Rowland Hill and the 
66th— Campaign of 1818— The battle of Vittoria. 67 

CHAPTER VIL— 1813-1817.— Services of the 2nd BattaUon 
concluded — Pursuit of the French — Marshal Soult reinstated — 
Attack on the heights of RoncesvaUes— Fighting in the Pyrenees— 
Nivelle— Nive — Orthes— Toulouse — Termination of the Peninsular 

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War — ^The 2nd Battalion return home— Bmbark for St. Helena- 
Incorporated with the let Battalion. 67 

CHAPTER Vin.— 1817-1827.— Death and Funeral of Napoleon 
Bonaparte — The 66th leave St. Helena — Complimentary order — 
Home services — "Peninsular Honours" granted — ^Embark for 
Canada.... ... 78 

CHAPTERIX.— 1827-1865.— Services in Canada— The Papineau 
Rebellion — Affair of St. Charles — Suppression of the Rebellion — 
The 66th return to England— Embark for Gibraltar— Sent to the 
West Indies— Severe outbreak of Yellow fever —Canada — Presenta- 
tion of New Colours at Quebec — Return to England and embark 
for India — Grenadier and Light Companies abolished — Service in 
India —Embark for England —The voyage Home. . 82 

CHAPTER X.— 1870-1879.— Embark for India— Presentation 
of New Colours by Lord Northbrook — Old Colours deposited in St. 
Mary's Church, Reading — Camp of Exercise at Chinchured — 
Movements of the Depdt up to January, 1878. .. 89 

CHAPTER XL -1879-1880.— Arrival at Kurrachee— Inspected 
by Brigadier Brice — Death of Lieutenant Smallpiece— Colonel 
Barclay's Farewell order — Colonel Galbraith succeeds to the 
Command of the 66th — Ordered to Afghanistan on Active Service 
— Movements of Detachments — Ayoub Khan's Advance — Mutiny 
of the Wall's troops— Girishk — Return to EushkifNakud. . . 96 

CHAPTER XIL— MAIWAND-Lieutenant O'Donnel's account 
of the action— Extracts from notes by Major Ready, commanding 
the Baggage guard— List of Officers, N.C. Officers and Privates 
who were killed — General Primrose's Letter to the Commander-in- 
Chief in India. 102 

CHAPTER XIIL— 29th' July, 1880, to 1st July, 1881. Siege 
of Kandahar — Attack on deh Kojh — Relief of Kandahar bv General 
Sir Frederick Roberts ^Burial of the dead at Mai wand — Return of 
the regiment to England — Numercial distinctions abolished — 

APPENDIX L— Succession of Colonels 

APPENDIX II.- War Services of Officers 

APPENDIX III— List of Officers in 1761 
List of Officers in 1881 





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Cj^apl^r t 

1768-1804 — Formation of the Regiment — Uniform — Early History — 
Embarks on foreign Service — Quartered in the Island of 
St. Vincent — Gibraltar— Ordered again to West Indies — Active 
Service in St. Domingo — Quartered in Jamaica, Nova Scotia, and 
Newfoundland — Returns to England — Second Battalion raised. 

N the middle of the last century, the exertions 
of Great Britain in the prosecution of that 
extensive and sanguinary struggle known as 
the " Seven Years' War," rendered an addition 
to her Land Forces imperative, and, Parlia- 
ment having authorised the augmentation, 
several new corps (from the 61st to the 70th inclusive,) 
were ordered to be formed from the 2nd Battalions of 
existing regiments. 

In accordance with this order — ^which was issued in 

the Spring of 1758 — ^the 2nd Battalion of the 19th (or 1st 

North Biding of Yorkshire) Begiment was constituted a 

separate corps, and numbered the .66th of the line. 

Of the early history of the 66th but little is known, 

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2 THE 66th begiment. 

owing to the loss or destruction of the Eegimental Eecords 
at the evacuation of Port au Prince, in 1797. 

It must have been shortly after its formation that His 
Majesty, George 11, approved of the new regiment being 
styled the " 66th or Berkshire Eegiment," by which title 
it has been known for nearly a century and a quarter.* 

According to a Eoyal Warrant, dated 19th December, 
1758, the original uniform of the " Berkshire ** Eegiment 
was a red coat lined with white and faced with ** yellow- 
green '* ; lace, gold for officers ; and white, with one 
crimson and green and one green stripe for the men. 
Waistcoat and breeches, white. The 66th retained their 
green facings until the year 1880. 

The first Colonel of the 66th was Edward Sandford, 
whose commission bears date of the 21st of April, 1758. 
This officer only had the regiment a few months, and 
was succeeded, on the 24th August, by Colonel John La 

La Fausille held the Colonelcy until January, 1763, 
when he gave place to Lord Adam Gordon. On the 10th 
February, 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed, and, a 
General Peace being proclaimed, the ** Seven Years* 
War,'* and the War with Spain (conmienced in January, 
1762) came to an end. There is no record to show 
whether the 66th were employed on active or foreign 
service during these Wars, nor can we discover where 
the regiment was quartered for the first fifteen years of 
its existence. 

We now come to the period when light infantry . 

* The first Anny List in which the County Title appears, is that 
for 1783. 

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companies were permanently established in the British 
Army, and by a Boyal Warrant, dated 25th December, 
1770, a hght company was added to the strength of the 
66th, and sixteen other line regiments. 

In the month of May, 1773, the regiment marched 
from Plymouth to Eomsey, and while stationed at 
Eomsey had the honour of being reviewed by His 
Majesty, George III., who expressed his approbation of 
its appearance and discipline. 

Shortly after this memorable inspection, the 66th 
marched to Berwick, and from thence to Edinburgh Castle, remained until the autumn of 1775, when it 
embarked for Ireland. 

On the 13th January, 1776, Joseph Gabbett was 
appointed Colonel, in succession to Lord Adam Gordon. 

During the next nine years the regiment was stationed 
in various parts of Ireland, and was distinguished as an 
efficient and well-conducted corps. 

On lihe 2nd April, 1785, the 66th embarked for the 
West Indies, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Forster; a captain and two subalterns remaining at home 
in recruiting service. Before the regiment sailed, the 
following complimentary General Order was issued at the 
Cove of Cork : — 

** 12th April, 1785. Colonel Crosby having obtained 
leave of absence, is extremely happy to have it in his 
power, before he resigns his command, to communicate 
to the 66th and 67th regiments the approbation and 
thanks of the Commander-in-Chief for the very honour- 
able manner these regiments have left this country; 

and the spirit, good order and cheerfulness with which 

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4 THE 66th regiment. 

they embarked, of -which he will make a favourable 

report to the King. The Colonel sincerely wishes 

them a happy voyage, and a safe return to their native 


Signed, Charles Stuart, Adjutant 67th Eegiment." 

The 66th was bound for the Island of St. Vincent, and 
on the 4th of June, 1785, after a two months' voyage, 
the transport dropped anchor in Kingston Bay; the 
regiment disembarked next morning. 

In 1787, Lieutenant-Colonel Forster retired from the 
service, and the command of the regiment devolved upon 
Major Henry Eoper, who was shortly afterwards 
promoted Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Colonel Roper returned to England a few months later, 
and was succeeded in temporary command by Captain 
Urquhart, who was relieved on the 6th December, 1788, 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Bowyer. 

During its stay in St. Vincent new colours were 
presented to the 66th. 

In the winter of 1792, orders were received for the 
regiment to hold itself in readiness to proceed to Gibraltar 
at an early date. 

In communicating this order to the Eegiment, Major- 
General Cuyler, in conmiand at St. Vincent, wrote as 
follows : — 

" I cannot part with the 66th Eegiment which has so 
constantly gone on well since my arrival in this country, 
without making known that I am sensible of their good 
conduct, which sentiment I have expressed in the enclosed 
letter to Sir Eobert Boyd. 

Signed, C. Cuyler, Major-General." 

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On hearing that the 66th was under orders for Gibral- 
tar, the St. Vincent Government formally requested that 
the old colours might be deposited in the Court House at 
Kingstown — as ** a memento of the services of the corps 
in the island." 

This request was readily granted, and on the 8th 
January, 1793, the old colours, which had been carried 
by the "Berkshire" regiment for upwards of thirty years, 
were placed with due ceremony in the Kingstown Court 

The St. Vincent authorities acknowledged the receipt 
of these time-honoured ensigns in the following terms : — 

"V^e receive these colours as a mark of attention 
from the Regiment to the Colony, and will preserve 
them as a memorial of their good conduct and 

Next morning (9th January, 1793) the 66th, under 
conmiand of Major Hildebrand Oakes, embarked at 
Kingstown, and when the transport stood out to sea, the 
batteries overlooking the Bay fired a salute as a compli- 
ment to the regiment. The voyage to Gibraltar was of 
two months*^ duration, and the 66th landed there on the 
13th March. 

In 1794, John, Earl of Clanricarde, was appointed 

After three years* sojourn at the ** Rock," the 66th 
received orders to make up their strength to 1,200 of all 
ranks, prior to returning to the West Indies. 

In order to complete the establishment with as little 
delay as possible, vacancies were filled up by drafts from 
the 2nd Battalion 82nd, the 108th, 128th, and 131st 

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Begiments. Early in 1796, the regiment left Gibraltar, 
and, on the 23rd February, disembarked at Port au 
Prince, in the island of St. Domingo. 

St. Domingo was, at this period, in a state of complete 
anarchy owing to the internal dissensions of the negroes, 
into whose hands the decrees of the French RepubHc had 
thrown the greater portion of the unfortunate island. 

Port au Prince had been taken from the Eepublicans 
by the British in the summer of '94, and was now held 
by a garrison, under Lieut-General Williamson. That 
officer had extended his posts in the island, and 
being short of troops had raised several negro corps, 
the command of which he gave to French RoyaHsts. 
Between these black troops and the Republican negroes 
there was constant warfare. 

Such was the state of affairs when the 66th arrived at 
Port au Prince. 

On the 28th February, 1796, j&ve days after disembark- 
ing, the regiment, consisting of eight companies, two of 
which were detached in conjunction with other corps, 
attacked and carried a post, at a place called Turgeau, 
not far from Port au Prince. In this affair (of which no 
details are given in the Records,) the 66th lost 3 men 
killed and 3 wounded. 

The following General Order was issued on the 
occasion : — 

" It is with the greatest satisfaction His Excellency 
the Governor saw yesterday the complete execution 
of the plan that had been concerted to possess the 
heights and drive the enemy to the other side of the 
mountains; from the judicious disposition that had 

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been made the enemy saw no safety but in flight. 
His Excellency returns his best thanks to Brigadier- 
General Bowyer, Baron Montalembert, Colonel Gar- 
diner, the Commandant and the officers and men of 
the different corps who contributed to the success of 
the day." 

The e6th remained in this unhealthy island for 
upwards of two years, during which time it was engaged 
in incessant warfare of an unusually harassing and 
fatiguing nature. No records remain to tell of its ser- 
vices, but it is probable that besides, being present at 
many minor affairs, the regiment (or a portion of it) 
formed part of an expedition, commanded by General 
Forbes, sent against L^ogane on the 21st March, 1796 ; 
and that it was present at the attack and capture of the 
fort of Bombarde, on which occasion the British lost 
, thirty officers and men killed and wounded. (June 8th). 
An original document, signed by Lieutenant and 
Adjutant David Gunn, shows that 16 officers* and 
690 non-commissioned officers and men of the 66th Foot 
died during their first year's service at St. Domingo — 
from February, 1796, to February, 1797. 

This is sufficient to prove how severely the corps 
suffered, and that the dangers and hardships to which 
the men were exposed during this almost forgotten war 
were of no ordinary kind. 

In the summer of 1798, arrangements were made by 
Brigadier-General, the Hon. Thomas Maitland, for the 

* List of Officers xnentiuned. Brevet-Majors Burvill and Gabbitt; 
Captains Lipycatt and R. Gabbitt ; Captain-IJeutenant Long ; Lieu- 
tenants Simms, Peach, Swainson, Arbuckle, Best, and Harrison; Ensigns 
Ward and Carr (acting) ; Surgeons W. Long and Lander. 

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8 THE 66th begiment. 

British to evacuate St. Domingo, and by the end of that 
year the French troops were also withdrawn, so that 
Toussaint L'Ouverture and his sable brethren were left 
in undisputed possession of the entire island.* 

On the 24th September, 1798, the regiment embarked 
at Cape St. Nicholas Mole, and sailed for Jamaica, where 
it arrived on the 4th October, and marched to Up Park 

The 66th was not long in Jamaica, for early in 1799 
we find it at Halifax, Nova Scotia. The casualties of 
war and the ravages of disease had by this time reduced 
the Corps almost to a skeleton battalion, and the gaps in 
its ranks were here filled up by 300 volunteers from the 
7th Eoyal Fusiliers, and by a draft of recruits, which had 
come out from home in charge of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hatton, who now assumed command of the regiment. 

Early in November, 1799, the 66th marched to Anna- 
polis Eoyal, and on the 2nd January, 1800, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Urquhart arrived from England, and reHeved 
Hatton in command of the regiment. 

While the 66th lay at Annapolis Eoyal, H.E.H. the 
Duke of Kent visited it, and remained for a few days as 
the guest of the officers. 

On the 26th May, 1800, the regiment embarked at 
Halifax, on board the John transport, and, convoyed by 
H.M. Frigate Cleopatra, sailed for St. John's, New- 

* Bryan Edwards in his History of the West Indies, says " The 
attempts of reducing this island cost many lives .... the number left 
alive and fit for service at the end of the year 1797, was not more than 
3000 men. About 12,000 land forces, and 500 seamen, had in the space 
of three years fallen a sacrifice to that pestilential climate. 

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Here, on the 14th September, Lieutenant-Colonel 
George Urquhart died, and was succeeded by Lieutenant* 
Colonel John Hatton. v 

The 66th remained in Newfoundland until the 9th 
October, 1802, when it sailed for England, after seven- 
teen years* continuous foreign service. 

The following General Order was issued by Brigadier- 
General John Skerrett (Colonel of the Loyal Durham 
Fencibles) previous to the embarkation of the regiment : — 
" 6th October, 1802. The Brigadier-General feels 
much mortified in losing the services of H.M. 66tb 
Eegiment from under his command. The striking 
proof of loyalty, high discipline and obedience he has 
experienced from this corps, call for his most grateful 
acknowledgments to the officers, non-commissioned 
officers and privates. By their admirable conduct the 
tranquillity of this great settlement has been insured. 
To Lieutenant-Colonel Hatton, who has assisted the 
native valour of the corps by every exertion of the most 
judicious and vigorous discipline, everything is ,due; 
and Brigadier-General Skerrett considers it a bounden 
duty to state the same to Lieutenant-General Bowyer^ 
for the information of the Commander-in-Chief. On 
some future day he hopes to have the honour of serving 
with the "Berkshire"* Eegiment, being assured that 
the gallant conduct which has so often distinguished 
them in the field, will add resplendency to the British 
arms on whatever service they may be sent." 
The 66th arrived at Portsmouth on the 24:th October, 

* This is the first time the County title is mentioned in the 
Regimental Records. 

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10 THE 66th begiment. 

1802, and, four days later, received orders to proceed to 
Jersey, where it landed on the 3rd November, and 
occupied Fort Henry and the Granville Barracks. At 
Jersey the regiment remained for eleven months, enjoying 
a well-earned rest after the vicissitudes and perils of a 
long tour of foreign service. 

In the spring of 1803, the arrogance and duplicity of 
that mihtary autocrat, Bonaparte, first Consul of the 
French Republic, brought about a rupture of the Peace 
of Amiens, and hostilities so lately interrupted broke out 
afresh; war with France being formally declared on the 
18th May, 1803. 

[Whatever reverses and humiliations other nations had 
suffered at the hands of victorious France, England, at all 
events, had more than held her own, both by sea and 
land ; and the British were naturally exceedingly sensi- 
tive on the slightest supposition of inferiority to their 
ancient enemy; it is therefore not surprising that 
Bonaparte's insolent and contemptuous treatment of the 
British Ambassador, Lord Whitworth, aroused the 
indignation of the country. The most animated feeUngs 
of patriotism were now exhibited by the nation at 
large, and ParHament readily responded to the King's 
request that the army should be considerably increased. 
Recruiting was carried on with unexampled despatch, 
and many line regiments were ordered to raise additional 
battalions. ] 

The 66thxwas one of the corps required to raise a second 
battalion, and a War Office letter (dated 18th August, 
1803) to that effect was addressed to Lord Glanricarde, 
as Colonel of the regiment. A second battalion, 1,100 

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strong, was rapidly raised, chiefly by drafts from the army 
of Eeserve, and Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Benson was 
placed in temporary command. The ten senior captains, 
twelve lieutenants and eight ensigns of the regiment 
remained with the 1st battahon, the rest of the officers 
joined the 2nd battalion. 

On the 24th September, 1803, the 66th moved from 
Jersey to Winchester, arriving at that town on the 4th 

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Cj^apt^r 2. 

1804-1817.— Services of 1st Battalion— Embark for Ceylon— Services 
in that Island, and on the Madras Coast —Moved to Bengal — 
The Nepaulese War— Embark for St. Helena. 

^N January, 1804, it was intimated to the 
Eegiment that the 1st Battalion -was to be 
brought up to its full strength, by volunteers 
for unlimited service from the 2nd Battalion, 
prior to proceeding abroad. 

The destination of the 1st Battalion was 
not, however, made known. 

On the 3rd March, 1804, the 1st Battalion 66th 
Eegiment left Winchester, to be billeted in the neigh- 
bouring towns during the Spring Assizes; but on the 
following day, orders were received at Bishop's Waltham 
— where the Headquarters had already arrived — for the 
Battahon to proceed to Portsmouth, and there embark 
for Ceylon, so soon as transport could be provided. 

The 66th marched into Gosport — over 1000 bayonets 
strong — on the 6th March, and next morning, went on 
board the Brunswichj Canton^ and Marquis of Ely, three 
merchantmen engaged in the China trade. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hatton was in command of the Battalion, and 
Headquarters were on board the Brunswick. 

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On the 20th March, after laying off the Mother Bank 
for a fortnight, waiting for a fair wind, the three vessels 
weighed anchor, stood down Channel, and proceeded on 
their voyage to Trincomalee, where they arrived on the 
16th July. On disembarking at Trincomalee, a portion 
of the Battalion was accommodated in Barracks, and the 
remaining companies went under canvas. 

A rest of about six weeks followed the tedious 
voyage round the Gape, and then it was intimated to 
Colonel Hatton, that the Battalion must be broken up 
into detachments. In issuing this order, Major-General 
Wemyss — the commandant at Trincomalee — expressed 
his regret at having to separate the 66th, and also 
declared himself highly pleased with ** the handsome 
and soldier-like appearance of the men." For the next 
two-years-and-a-half, the Battalion was employed on 
detachment duty in various parts of the island of Ceylon, 
and also in the Madras Presidency. In the spring of 
1807, Colonel Hatton returned home on leave, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Blakeney took over the command. 

On the 3rd September, 1807, the following Order was 
issued by Lieutenant-General Maitland, on the occasion 
of his visit of inspection at Trincomalee. 

" Lieutenant-General Maitland felt great satisfaction 
at the whole state of the Garrison of Trincomalee 
and its dependencies, at his visit to that important 
post. His Majesty's 66th Eegiment, he is happy to 
observe, has not suffered by the temporary loss of 
that excellent officer. Colonel Hatton. The steadiness 
and appearance of the men is highly reputable to 
Lieutenant-Colonel Blakeney and the officers of the 

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14 THE 66th begiment. 

Corps. The general character and good conduct of the 

officers does credit to the Begiment, and the whole 

state of the Begiment does honour to the Service.** 

In the year 1808, the history of the ** Berkshire ** 
Begiment was marked by two important events. 

The 1st Battalion lost the valuable services of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Blakeney, who died on the 2nd July, 
and was succeeded in temporary command of the 
Battalion, by Major Charles Nicol. 

Lieutenant-General Oliver NichoUs was appointed 
Colonel of the 66th, on the 18th July, vice Lord 

On the 28th July, 1809, an order was received from 
General Maitland, for a detachment of the 66th to 
embark immediately for Madras, in consequence, of 
serious disturbances on the Coromandel coast. 

In accordance with this order, Major Nicol, with 400 
officers and men, went on board the H.E.I.C. ship, 
Bussell, 74 guns, and sailed for Madras, touching at 
Jaffnapatam, en route, to pick up a company stationed 

On arriving on the coast, the detachment was brigaded 
with other troops, under command of Colonel Conran, 
and marched towards Hydrabad. Conran advanced 
with his little force as far as Gooty, a distance of 350 
miles, when he received intelligence of the suppression 
of the disturbances, and the "Ceylon Brigade** was 
ordered back to Madras. 

Major Nicol and his detachment then returned to 
Ceylon, reaching Trincomalee on New Year's day, 

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Soon after they rejoined, General Maitland again 
visited Trincomalee, and was so much pleased with the 
appearance and conduct of the troops, but more especially 
with the detachment that had lately been employed in 
Madras, that he gave an entertainment to the Garrison; 
half the non-commissioned officers and men being kej)t 
off duty one day, and half the next. 

The 66th remained in Ceylon until the spring of 
1814, when, on the 12th April, it embarked, under 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel John Wardell, for 

A highly complimentary order was promulgated by 
the commandant of the Trincomalee Garrison, previous 
to their departure. 

* 'Major-General Jackson has to express his high 
approbation and thanks to Lieutenant-Colonel Wardell, 
and the officers and men of his Regiment, for their 
mihtary appearance, and exemplary conduct on all 
occasions. His hearty wishes for their prosperity are 
ensured by that steadiness and discipHne which 
universally prevails amongst them.** 
The Battalion arrived at Fort William, Bengal, on the 
27th April, and there remained until the summer of 

Since the autumn of 1814, the attention of the Indian 
Government had been engrossed by the Nepaulese war, 
which had been carried on more or less successfully, — 
but with heavy loss to the British troops — by Ochterlony, 
Marley, and the gallant Rollo Gillespie. . 

The hardy Ghoorkas fought with courage and deter- 
mination, but were compelled to retire towards their 

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16 THE 66th regiment. 

monntain fastnesses; and having been several times 
-defeated, the Kadji Ameer Sing sued for peace. After 
much delay and prolonged discussion, Colonel Bradshaw 
on behalf of the Governor General, and Bam Sak 
Ghantra, and a Brahmin, Gaj Baj Misr, acting for the 
Nepaulese, signed a treaty of peace, and every warlike 
preparation was thought to be at an end, but the Ghoorka 
Eajah's object had been to gain time, and he suddenly 
repudiated the treaty entered upon by Bam Sak Ghantra 
and his brother envoy, and refused to be bound by its 

War was again declared, and active measures taken to 
bring the Nepaulese Potentate to reason. 

On the 27th June, 1815, the 66th was ordered to 
march from Fort WilHam to Gawnpore, so soon as it 
should be relieved by the 53rd Shropshire Eegiment. 

On the 30th an order was received changing its 
destination to Dinapore. The Battalion embarked at 
Fort William on the 9th August, and proceeded up the 
Hooghly in boats to Dinapore. The distance from Fort 
William to Dinapore by land is 400 miles, but by river, 
it is close upon 600 miles, and the 66th did not arrive 
there until the 19th September. 

The next six weeks were spent in preparations for the 
expected campaign, and all ranks looked forward to the 
prospect of active service. 

On the 1st November, the 66th, one battalion of 
Native Infantry, and a force of artillery, quitted Dinapore, 
and marched towards the Frontier. 

Grossing the Ganges they proceeded to Mirzapore, and 
after an easy and pleasant march of ten days' duration, 

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arrived at Amowah, where the troops destined to 
force the mountain passes and penetrate to Katmandoo, 
the Nepaulese capital, were to rendezvous. 

Colonel Kelly of H.M. 24th Eegiment was in command 
at Amowah. 

Amowah was about thirty-five miles from the great 
forest of Nepaul, in reax of which were the strong forts 
and stockades of the enemy, erected on hills whose 
summits were lost in the clouds. In the distance could 
be seen the lofty, snow-clad Himalayan mountains, 
towering above the hills. The camp was pitched in a 
healthy and picturesque spot ; the regular rows of white 
tents standing in well-wooded glades, that sloped down 
to, and surrounded a magnificent lake, covered with wild 

After a fortnight's rest in this beautiful place, the 
troops struck their tents, and continued the march. On 
the 25th November they crossed the Segouta river, and 
next day encamped near Alowne. 

On the 28th they reached Bulwee, a desolate and 
uninteresting village, twenty-five miles from Amowah, 
when a halt was ordered to allow the 87th Royal Irish 
Fusiliers and some Native Infantry to come up. 

On the 8th December, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles 
Nicol arrived from England, and resumed command of 
the Battalion. 

General Sir David Ochterlony had now joined the 
army, and was ready to take the field. He had at his 
command close upon 17,000 men, including a strong 
force of artillery under Major George Mason, of the 
H.E.I. Company's service, and a few squadrons of 

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18 THE 66th begiment. 

*'Bohaia" irregular cavalry. Captain Watson wa» 
Assistant-Adjutant-General, and Lieutenant Joshua 
Pickersgill, Assistant-Quarter-master-General, and Chief 
of the Intelligence Department. The infantry, consisting 
of three British regiments of the line and 6000 native 
troops, was divided into four brigades, commanded 
respectively by lieutenant-Colonels, W. Kelly, H.M» 
24th, Charles Nicol, H.M. 66th, Francis Miller, H.M. 
87th, and Brigadier Dick, a " Company's ** officer. 

Kelly, Nicol, and Miller, had each his own regiment, 
and two or more battalions of natives in their respective 
brigades. Dick commanded three battalions of Sepoys. 

Sir David Ochterlony ("ould Maloney," as the Irish 
soldiers loved to call him,) soon arranged his preliminary 
movements, and Kelly's brigade moved on Bugwanpore, 
while the 3rd and 4th brigades remained with the 
General. The 2nd brigade, consisting of the 66th and 
five Sepoy battalions, under Brigadier Charles Nicol, left 
the camp on the 3rd February, 1816, and marched on 
Bamnuggur, where they arrived on the 6th. 

Here Nicol halted for some days, in order to allow a 
commissariat train from Bettiah to join him. 

The advance was continued on the 13th February, 
when the 66th and their Sepoy comrades marched to an 
old and very sacred pagoda, known as Maha Juggee, 
situated on a precipitous hill. Three days were spent in 
fortifying the pagoda, which was garrisoned by a force of 
. 300 men with two guns, so that communications with 
Sir David might be kept up, and the commissariat 
convoys coming by that route, protected. 

On the 17th, Nicol left Maha Juggee, and led his 

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brigade through the dense forest, entering the Bicknee 
Pass on the same day, without being opposed by the 

The Bicknee Pass was simply a deep, stony, "nullah '' 
or dry river bed, varying from fifty to one hundred yajds- 
in breadth; the banks were high and steep, covered with 
.thick underwood, and topped on either side with well 
grown trees, whose trunks and dense foliage afforded 
excellent cover for hidden foes. 

Colonel Nicol took every precaution to guard against a 
surprise, and ordered the hght companies of battalions 
to feel their way along the wooded banks, whilst the 
main body of the brigade advanced slowly up the 
boulder-strewn pass. 

In this order the brigade moved forward, every officer 
and man on the alert, expecting each minute to heax the 
hoarse wax cries of the hardy Ghoorkas. 

For three days Nicol and his men marched through cu 
most difficult country, meeting with no opposition from 
the enemy, although "Dame Nature'* threw almost 
insurmountable obstacles in their way; for as they went, 
the 66th and their brethren-in-arms had to widen and 
improve goat tracks, and make roads where roads had 
never before existed. 

On the 20th February it was reported that the 
Ghoorkas were in force in a stockade not far distant. 
An advanced party was pushed forward to reconnoitre,, 
when it was discovered that the enemy had abandoned 
their work and retired further into the country. 

The fact was, that Sir David Ochterlony with the 

other columns had completely turned the Bicknee Pass, 

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20 THE 66th begiment. 

which if properly defended could only have been forced 
with great difficulty and severe loss. 

The brigade passed through the deserted stockade on 
the 23rd; it was judiciously placed and very strong, and 
would have proved a troublesome place to carry by 

As the troops advanced the Ghoorkas retreated, Jbut 
many of the peasantry returned to their homes, when 
they saw that their lives and property were respected by 
the invaders. 

Having crossed the first range of hills skirting the 
Himalayas, Colonel Nicol descended into a well-cultivated 
valley, watered by the Eapte, a tributary of the Ganges. 

The Fort of Eckore and several of the enemy's hill 
strongholds were now in sight; and two Native battalions 
with a few field-pieces, were detached from the brigade, 
and left to garrison Jowannie, a village not far from 

The remainder of the brigade then proceeded along the 
beautiful banks of the Eapte, whose sinuous course 
rendered it very often necessary for the troops to cross 
the stream during their march. 

Nature here seemed to surpass herself, and the 
'* Berkshire" men were greatly struck with the strange 
beauty of the country through which they were passing. 

The magnificent fruit-laden trees, the variegated shrubs, 
the birds of gay plumage which darted amongst the rich 
fohage, and the bands of chattering monkeys clinging to 
the branches and swinging from bough to bough, combined 
to excite the surprise and admiration of the British 
soldiers, and even the Sepoys-^accustomed as they were 

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to tropical profusion — appeared impressed with the 
grandeur of the scenery. 

. On the 1st March, the brigade encamped near Hettor- 
ah, where Colonel Nicol received a note from Sir David, 
giving a brief account of a sharp skirmish that had taken 
place on the previous day, in which the Ghoorkas were 
worsted, but not vdthout loss to the British, who had 
lieutenant Turrell of the 20th Native Infantry killed, 
and two other officers severely wounded. The General 
also requested Colonel Nicol to join him as soon as 
possible. The brigade marched at once, and arrived at 
Muckwanpore— where the army, with the exception of 
Colonel Kelly's command, was now assembled — on the 
8rd March. 

There had been another smart affair the day before, on a 
ridge of high hills close to the camp, when the Ghoorkas, 
who had fought vdth great bravery, were defeated and 
driven from part of their position by the Light Company 
of the 87th Fusiliers. In this skirmish. Ensign John 
Shipp, of the 87th, attacked and slew in single combat 
a distinguished ''sobah," or chieftain, named Khissna 
Ehannah Bahador, who was said to be the identical 
personage who planned and executed the atrocious 
massacre at Summanpore and Persah, the previous 

The 66th were much chagrined at being too late to 
participate in this affair, but as the enemy were still 
entrenched on the further and more inaccessible part of 
the heights, they hoped to have an opportunity of 
meeting them at closer quarters before long. 

The arrival of NicoFs brigade was most opportune, 

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22 THE 66th regiment. 

for the Ghoorkas had been preparing to attack the 87th, 
but the sight of fresh troops, who had pierced through 
their valleys, by roads and passes hitherto deemed 
impenetrable, perplexed and disconcerted them. 

A road was now commenced up the steep side of the 
hill, and during the afternoon four companies of the 66th, 
a battalion of Native Grenadiers, and half-a-battery of 
6-pounders, under Major Carlyon, were marched to the 

Next morning the remainder of the 66th was sent up, 
as there came a report that the enemy were approaching 
in force. The troops kept the ridge of the hills, marching 
cautiously in an easterly direction, until they reached a 
spot where the pioneers were throwing up some earth- 
works and a 4-gun battery. This battery appeared, at 
first sight, to be about 1,000 yards from the Ghoorkas first 
stockade, but it was presently discovered that the enemy 
had a second work some 500 yards more in advance. 

In the evening a "Vakeel,** or envoy, passed through 
on his way from the enemy's camp to the General, and 
in an hour or so he returned. Shortly after this, an order 
was issued forbidding the men to fire, except in retaliation, 
before 10 a.m. next day. The troops accordingly lay in 
the trenches during the night, fully accoutered, and with 
bayonets fixed. 

The preparation for immediate action, and the sight of 
the Ghoorkas so close at hand, produced intense excite- 
ment amongst the troops of NicoFs brigade. 

The 66th were especially anxious to have a brush 
with the enemy, and every man was on the qui vive; 
flints were carefully adjusted, cartridges arranged; 

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and in breathless expectation they waited for. the 

The Battalion — ^which mastered 900 bayonets, and was 
in splendid condition— had, since its arrival in India, 
been often tantalized with the prospect of a fight, but 
.had hitherto been disappointed; but now the men felt 
certain that their hopes would be realized, for the enemy 
were within pistol-shot, and the first dawn of day would 
Assuredly be the signal for an attack. 

So ardently did the ''Berkshires" long to meet the foe, 
that, during the night, several sick men stole away from 
the hospital tent, and, clambering up the hill, joined 
their comrades ; only four invalids remained in the tent, 
and these were unable to rise to their feet. 

But once again the Corps was doomed to be dis- 
appointed ! 

The Vakeel who had passed through the camp on 
the previous evem'ng, was the bearer of the acceptance of 
the terms of peace offered by Sir David Ochterlony 
to the Nepaulese Government; and next morning the 
brigade retired from the hills, and marched into camp in 
the plain below. 

On the 8th March, the return march to Dinapore was 

The excitement had hitherto been so great and the 
desire to engage the enemy so absorbing, that the soldiers 
had scarcely felt the fatigue, privations and hardships 
they had undergone ; in short their indomitable energy 
had made them almost proof against sickness and 

But now a reaction took place, and the 66th had 

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24 THE 66th begiment. 

barely turned their backs upon the hills of Nepaul, when 
severe disease broke out amongst the men. On the 16th 
March the brigade arrived at Bettiah, where it was 
broken up; and the regiment marched on to Dinapore^ 
arriving there on the 28th. 

The following is an extract from the Governor-General's. 
Order in Council, published at the termination of the 
war: — 

" The zeal, judgment, and energy of Major-General 
Sir David Ochterlony, have been brilliantly conspicuous 

in the late operations Brigadier Kelly, 

by- the able and gallant manner in which he 
achieved the arduous task assigned him, and Brigadier 
Nicol, by the judicious and active management of his 
column, have entitled themselves to a distinction 
beyopd the praise of this order, which they share in 
common with the rest of the army, and the Governor- 
General in Council assures them that he duly estimates 
their exertions." 

Sir David Ochterlony, too, was warm in his praise of 
Colonel Nicol and the 2nd Brigade. In a General Order, 
dated 5th April, 1816, he says : — 

"In the conduct of the Western Column, firmness,, 
decision, mildness and humanity were required, and 
these qualities were eminently shown, as occasion 
called for them, by Colonel Nicol. But the Major- 
GeneraFs thanks are more particularly due for the zeal 
and anxiety by which his long and fatiguing marchea 
were conducted, to join the Headquarters at a moment 
when the services of his brigade were most useful and 

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The above account, together with Sir David Ochter- 
lony's remarks, tend to show, that, although NicoFs 
Brigade was never actually engaged with the Ghoorkas^ 
their great exertions were not made in vain, for there can ' 
be little doubt that their advent at Headquarters at 
Muckwanpore, on the morning of 3rd March, had a great 
moral effect upon the enemy, and in no small degree 
influenced his decision to sue for peace. 

We may remark, with reference to the Nepaulese towns, 
villages, and other places mentioned above, that no two 
accounts of the campaign agree in the manner of spelUng 
their names. 

The 66th remained at Dinapore until the 3rd July, 
when they embarked in boats on the river Ganges, for 
conveyance to Cawnpore. 

At this season of the year, the Ganges is usually very 
low, and the stench from all manner of decaying matter 
— animal and vegetable — lying on its banks and in 
shallow water is simply unbearable. 

The battaHon was exposed to this unhealtliy effluvia 
during the whole of the passage to Cawnpore. 

On arriving at Cawnpore no barracks were ready, and 
the men had to remain on board the boats for nearly a 
fortnight. The result was that a deadly fever broke out 
and carried off numbers of the battalion. 

The 66th was stationed at Cawnpore for nearly six 
months, during which period they suffered severely from 
sickness ; and at one time upwards of 300 men were in 
hospital. On the 19th January, 1817, the battahon left 
Cawnpore and proceeded to Calcutta, orders having been 
received for its removal to the Island of St. Helena. 

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26 THE 66th REGIMENT. 

Calcutta was reached on the 15th March, and the 
battalion marched into Fort William, where it was to be 
quartered until embarkation. 

On the 16th March, an order was issued, of which the 
following is an extract : — 

"The Commander-in-Chief takes this occasion to 
record his fullest approbation and applause of the 
discipline and conduct of this highly distinguished and 
truly efficient corps, since its arrival in India, both in 
the field and in quarters; and although the stay of the 
regiment in this country has been but short — ^which 
His Excellency has reason to regret — yet it has been 
sufficient to afford the strongest assurance of its value 
in His Majesty's army, and its loss to the general 
service of India." 

On the 24th March, 1817, the 66th marched out of 
Fort Wilham, and proceeded down the river to Saugur, 
where the vessels, which were to convey it to St. Helena, 
were laying. The battalion embarked on the 1st April 
on board of the Dora (Hd. Qrs. ship), the Maira, and 
the Catherine Griffiths, 

The Moira and Catherine Griffiths anchored at St. 
Helena towards the latter end of June, but the Borah 
having run short of water, had to put into Port Louis, 
Isle of France, and did not reach her destination until 
the 5th July. 

The disembarkation took place on the 18th, and the 
men marched into quarters; five companies going to 
*Deadwood, three to Francis Plain, and two remaining 
in James Town. 

* ? Longwood. 

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On the 24th July, an Order was issued at the Horse 
Guards to the effect that the Ist and 2nd Battalions of 
the 66th should be incorporated. 

The establishment of the Begiment at that date was 
61 officers, 125 non-commissioned officers, 22 drummers, 
and 1,140 privates. By an Order dated 23rd November, 
1818, the establishment was reduced to 89 officers, 65 
non-commissioned officers, 22 drummers, and 620 privates. 

This Order was notified to the Begiment at St. Helena, 
on the 16th March, 1819. 

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1304-1809.— Services of 2nd Battalion— Stationed in Ireland until 
1809 — Embark on active Service — Arrival in Portugal — ^March 
from Lisbon to Coimbra — The advance on Oporto — ^The passage" 
of the Douro — Anecdote. 

^^||pi|^tURING the early spring of 1804, the 2nd 
ri \ ^ill ^^**8.1ion of the 66th Regiment, under com- 
mand of Lieutenant- Colonel I^eter, embarked 
for Ireland, and landing at Cork in the month 
of March, went into quarters at the Geneva 

During the years 1805-6-7, the battalion was stationed 
in the South of Ireland. In June 1808, it was encamped 
on the Curragh pf Kildare; and when the Camp at 
the Curragh broke up, it marched to Dublin, and there 
remained until the spring of the following year. 

About this time, the enthusiasm for the hberation of 
the Peninsula, then prevalent throughout Great Britain, 
was increased by the disasters that had befallen our 
forces in Spain, and the death of the gallant Sir John 
Moore at Corunna. There appeared to be a general desire 
that immediate steps should be taken to drive the French 
out of Spain, and avenge the losses that Moore's army 
had sustained during the terrible retreat from Sahagun. 

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This feeling was particularly strong amongst all ranks in 
tlie Service, and it was therefore with genuine satisfaction 
that the 66th received notice that it had been specially 
selected to form part of the Division, destined to embark 
for Lisbon, under Major-General Eowland Hill. 

Though but lately raised, the 2nd Battalion was in a 
most efficient condition; the officers were young, active, 
high-spirited men; the non-commissioned-officers and 
privates, able-bodied, well disciplined, and fit for any 

Under command of Major Murray, the 66th, mustering 
720 bayonets, with a full complement of officers, left the 
Irish Metropolis and proceeded to Cork, from whence 
they were to sail for Portugal. During the march, a 
gloom was cast over the whole battalion, by the untimely 
death of Major Eichard Lloyd, a very popular and able 
officer, who was accidentally drowned whilst bathing. 
On arrival at Cork, the battalion at once went on board 
ship, but the transports did not weigh anchor for some days. 
The late Colonel Clark of the 66th, in his (manuscript) 
'* Eeminiscences of the Peninsula,*' describes the embarka- 
tion and subsequent march to Coimbra. 

"In June, 1808, I got my ensigncy, and after 
spending seven months in Dublin garrison, the 
Eegiment, with several others, got orders to march for 
Cork. We embarked at the Cove of Cork on the 10th 
of March, 1809, under command of Eowland Hill, 
our entire force being about 5000 men. On the 4th 
April, we entered the Tagus, disembarked at Belem on 
the 6th, and marched on the 8th, taking the northern 
route towards Oporto. Most of the officers carried a 

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80 THE 66th begimbnt. 

small oil-skin knapsack, containing a couple of shirts, 
stockings, and a change of boots; as to dressing cases, 
but few of us required a razor \ Our route lay over 
part of the ground on which the battle of Yimiera had 
been fought, and we passed through the old towns of 
Leira and Alcobasca. Our force was concentrated at 
Coimbra, where we remained until Sir Arthur Wellesley 
took command of the army/' 

By the end of the first week in May, Sir Arthur 
Wellesley had collected his forces upon the Mondego, 
near to Pombal and Coimbra, and found himself at the 
head of 13,000 British, 9000 Portuguese, and 8000 
Hanoverians. On the 7th May he gave orders for the 
army to march on Oporto, which was held by the French, 
under Marshal Soult, Duke of DaJmatia. 

General Hill's division,* (to which the 66th was 
attached), advanced upon Aveiro, while Sir Arthur, with 
the rest of the army, marched by the direct road on 
Youga. On the 10th May, Hill embarked his division at 
Aveiro in boats, to cross lake Ovarre, and at a place 
called Erigo, his advance guard encountered a body of 
the enemy's cavalry under Franceschi. A slight skirmish 
— in which the Light Company of the 66th took part — 
ensued, and the French retired, but were briskly pursued. 
Next day, after a long and fatiguing march over a sandy 
country. Hill's Division reached the left bank of the 
Douro, and, having taken up a position opposite to, and 
about 9 miles from Oporto, bivouacked for the night. 
"During the night," writes Colonel Clark, "our 

* Greneral HiU was nominally Brigadier of the 1st Brigade, 8rd 
Division ; but as a matter of fact he commanded the whole Division. 

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bivouac was disturbed by a tremendous noise accom- 
panied by what some deemed a shock of earthquake. 
We marched soon after, and arrived early in the day, 
(12th,) at Villa Nuova, a suburb of Oporto, on the left 
bank of the Douro ; it is a large place, and contains the 
chief stores of the Oporto Wine Company. We soon 
learnt the cause of the noise during the night; the 
French had blown up the bridge, and used a great 
quantity of powder in the operation." 
Early next morning, the 66th entered Villa Nuova^ 
and halted in the streets to await orders. 

The opposing armies were now face to faice, but having 
destroyed the bridge, Soult considered himself secure 
from any attack on his front and right. A deep, swift 
river, more than 300 yards wide, and guarded by a 
Corps d*Arm^e of Veterans, would have proved an 
impassable obstacle to most men, but Sir Arthur Wellesley 
determined to make the attempt, and set about to find 
means of crossing the Douro. By a fortunate chance 
Colonel Waters, of the Staff, discovered that a barber of 
Oporto had eluded the vigilance of the French, and come 
over in a skiff the previous night, and that his boat was 
concealed among the rushes. The httle craft was 
dragged from its hiding place, and Waters, accompanied 
by the Prior of Amaranthe, rowed across to the opposite 
bank, and there found three barges, which he succeeded 
in bringing away without attracting attention. 

At 10 a.m., (12th May, 1809), Colonel Waters reported 
that one boat was ready. ** Well, let the men cross," 
was Sir Arthur's laconic order; and an oflicer and twenty- 
five men of the 3rd Buffis (which Eegiment, together 

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32 THE 66th eegiment. 

with the 48th, was brigaded with the 66th,) silently 
entered the barge, were rowed across unperceived by the 
enemy, and immediately possessed themselves of a large 
<letached building on the Vallonga road, called the 
"* Seminary." This building was easily approached from 
the river, but on the land side, it was surrounded by a 
high wall, pierced with' one gateway; the ** Seminary" 
commanded all the country on the north bank of the 
Douro, but was itself commanded by the Sierra Eock on 
the Villa Nuova, or south side; and here, Sir Arthur had 
eighteen guns placed in battery. 

The banks of the Douro being steep and precipitous, 
and the point of crossing concealed from the city by a 
bend of the river, the enemy remained in ignorance of 
the daring manoeuvre for some little time; and the Ught 
companies of the 3rd, 48th and 66th regiments had 
crossed and occupied the Seminary before the alarm was 
given. But as the fourth boat — ^in which was Lieutenant 
<Teneral Paget — was making the passage, the alarm was 
given, and presently General Foy, with the 17th 
Voltigeurs, rushed from out the city to drive the British 
back. Foy was soon reinforced by Mermet's brigade, and 
the Seminary was furiously attacked. 

General Paget fell badly wounded, and Eowland Hill 
assumed the command. More troops were ferried across 
to the assistance of their comrades, who were contending 
against terrible odds, and in a short time Hill had the 
whole of the three battalions of his brigade within the 
walls of the Seminary. 

The ground to the west of the building was completely 
•swept by the battery on the Sierra Eock, so the French 

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were forced to con&ie their attack to the face farthest 
removed from its fire, which Hill defended with obstinacy. 

The arrival of fresh troops enabled a portion of the 
brigade to assume the offensive, and advance against a 
7-gun battery, which they carried in the face of a wither- 
ing fire of grape and musketry. Here the Light Company 
of the 66th captured and brought off a beautiful brass 
field-piece. Shortly after noon, the French evacuated 
the lower town of Oporto, and the inhabitants rushing 
down to the now unguarded quays, jumped into boats 
and rowed across to the south bank. 

Sherbrooke's Brigade of Guards at once went over in 
these boats; and almost at the same time General 
Murray — who had crossed the river at the ferry at 
Avintas, three miles up stream — ^was seen advancing 
down the right bank with the German Brigade and the 
14th Light Dragoons. 

All was now over; the French broke and retired in 
confusion along the Vallonga road, and that afternoon 
the British troops entered Oporto, and were received 
with every manifestation of joy by the delighted citizens. 

In this action the French lost 500 men and 5 guns, 
(one of which was taken by the 66th) in the field, besides 
leaving 50 guns, a quantity of military stores, and all 
their sick at Oporto. The British casualties numbered 
115 killed and wounded; the 66th alone lost 35 men, or 
nearly one-third of the total. Three officers of the 
Begiment — Major Murray, Captain Benning and Lieu- 
tenant Farr — ^were amongst the wounded.* 

* Tbe ftbove aooount of the passage of the Douzo is taken from 
the M.S. Eeoords of the 66th, and Clarke's " ReminiscenoeB " ; Colonel 
Clarke was then a Subaltern in the Lis^ht Company. 

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34 THE 66th regiment. 

Sir Arthur Wellesley thanked the Brigade on the spot 

for its conduct on this occasion, and that same evening 

issued the following Order : — 

"G.O., Oporto, 12th May, 1809. The Commander 
of the Forces congratulates the troops upon the 
success that has attended the operations of the last 
four days; during which they have traversed above 80 
miles of most difficult country, have carried some 
formidable positions, have beaten the enemy repeatedly, 
and have ended by forcing the passage of the Douro 
and defending the position so boldly taken, with a 
mmiber far inferior to that by which they were attacked. 
In the course of this short expedition the Commander of 
the Forces has had repeated opportunities of witnessing 
and applauding the gallantry of the officers and men." 
Colonel Clarke, in his "Eeminiscences," relates a 

ludicrous incident that occurred during the march to 

Oporto. He says — 

*' From the time we left Lisbon we had experienced 
the greatest kindness from the Portuguese. In passing 
through the towns we were not allowed to halt, but the 
ladies would run out and fill our hands with cakes and 
sweetmeats. The day before entering Oporto, I carried 
the " King's Colour," my brother ensign being a young 
and very handsome lad. A number of good-looking 
girls were standing in the road-way with pitchers of 
water, ready to give a drink to our thirsty soldiers; as 
the colour-party passed, a fine, handsome woman 
suddenly pressed forward, and seizing my astonished 
comrade in her arms, kissed him on both cheeks. Her 
act seemed infectious, for in an instant the young 

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ensign was surrounded by a score of Portuguese lasses 
who embraced him again and again. The roars of 
laughter that greeted this extraordinary display of good 
feeling for the British troops, attracted the attention of 
our Commanding Officer, and he came galloping up to 
enquire the cause of the disturbance; a glance showed 
him the state of the case, and he too joined, good- 
humouredly, in the laugh against the embarassed 


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tx 4. 

1809-10 — Services of 2nd Battalion continued — Pursuit of Soult— 
Betum to Oporto — ^Encamped at Abrantes — ^Attached to tiie 2nd 
Division — Position of the French Army Corps — ^The Advance into 
Spain — Don Gregorio de Cuesta — The Battle of Talavera. 

HE 66th marched with the rest of brigade in 
pursuit of the enemy, and entered the ancient 
city of Braga on the 15th. It was now 
known that Soult had succeeded in leading 
his demoralized forces into Spain, and joining 
Ney at Lugo. During his flight he abandoned 
nearly all his artillery, stores and baggage, and reached 
Lugo in a deplorable plight. Li fact the retreat of Soult 
from Oporto was to the full as disastrous as that of 
Sir John Moore to Gorunna, six months before, and it was 
generally felt that the honour of the British army had 
been vindicated, and Moore amply avenged. The Eegi- 
ment was billeted at Braga for a few days, and then 
returned to Oporto. From Oporto the British forces 
marched to Coimbra, and from thence — over a wild, 
desolate country, covered with thick, resinous under- 
growth — ^to Abrantes, a fortified town in Estramadura, 
on the banks of the Tagus. Here the army encamped 
on an extensive plain on the south bank of the river. 

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While at Abrantes, the different Brigades of the army 
were reformed into Divisions : the brigade to which the 
66th belonged was attached to the 2nd Division, the com- 
mand of which was given to Major-General Bowland 
Hill. The brigade was commanded by Brigadier Tilson, 

At this period the several French Army Corps were 
distributed as follows : — Soult and Ney — who had been 
driven out of Portugal and Galicia— were in the north of 
Spain, vrith some 60,000 troops; Suchet and St. Oyr held 
Arragon and Catalonia, but were fully occupied in hold- 
ing their own against the Spanish patriots of those 
provinces; Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jourdain 
were in the neighbourhood of Madrid; Sebastian held La 
Mancha; and Marshal Victor VTith 23,000 men, was at 
Merida, a fortified town situated at the confluence of the 
rivers Guadiana and Matachel, in the province of Estra- 
madura. After much deliberation. Sir Arthur Wellesley 
resolved to co-operate with the Spanish forces under 
Cuesta, (then occupying the left bank of the Tagus, in 
the vicinity of Almarez) and advance against Madrid. 

The camp near Abrantes was broken up in June, 1809, 
and Sir Arthur Wellesley, at the head of 22,000 men, 
marched for the Spanish frontier. 

The 66th, under Captain Kelly, left Abrantes with 
their brigade on the 27th, and traversing a rocky, barren 
tract of country, halted near the village of Garia. After 
a brief rest, the march was resumed, the Tagus was 
crossed — by means of a flying-bridge — at Villa Vilha, 
and the following day the army entered Spain. 

On the 20th July, Sir Arthur effected a junction at 
Oropesa with the Spanish General, Cuesta, who had with 

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38 THE 66th eegimbnt. 

him 32,000 foot, 6,000 horse, and 46 guns. The Spaniards 
were half-clad, indifferently armed, and badly disciplined; 
their leader, Don Gregorio de Ouesta, possessed in no 
ordinary degree the worst characteristics of the typical 
Spanish Hidalgo — arrogance, obstinacy and indolence; 
moreover he was old and infirm, and not particularly 
scrupulous. From the very first de Cuesta threw every 
obstacle in Sir Arthur's way, and treated him with 
petulant insolence. A grand review of the British troops 
was held on the 22nd, on which occasion General Cuesta 
appeared in an odd-looking vehicle drawn by a team of 
Mules. After the review the combined armies moved to 
Talavera-de-la-Beyna, and encamped close to the town. 

Marshal Victor had warned Joseph Bonaparte that 
Madrid would be probably threatened by the Allies, and 
the soi-disant King, alarmed for the safety of the capital, 
called in all his detached troops, placed Marshal Jourdain 
in command, and prepared to face the enemy. 

Talavera stands on the right bank of the Tagus, and is 
surrounded by vineyards, cork plantations and enclosures. 
The Alberche, a tributary of the Tagus, flows near the 
town; and at a distance of about two miles a chain of 
steep hills runs parallel to the Tagus; beyond these hills, 
and separated from them by a deep and rugged valley, is 
a mountain range which divides the Alberche from the 

The Anglo-Spanish position extended from Talavera to 
the heights on the west. The Spanish troops were posted 
on the right, which rested on the town, their front 
being covered by a convent and some hastily-thrown-up 
entrenchments; their left was protected by a mound 

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npon which was a large redoubt; in rear of this mound 
a brigade of British cavaby was posted. 

Campbell's Division touched the Spanish left, then 
came the Guards, and next to them Mackenzie's Division. 
The 2nd Division with two brigades of artillery, occupied 
an isolated hill, on the extreme left of the line; this point 
was deemed the key of the whole position. 

The French advanced early on the morning of the 27th, 
and fording the Alberche, attacked Mackenzie's Division, 
which was posted at the Casa de Salinas, and had not yet 
got into line. Taken by surprise and ,hotly pressed, 
Mackenzie retired in some disorder. His retreat was 
covered by the 45th Eegiment and some companies of the 
5th, or Eifle, Battalion of the 60th, led by Sir Arthur 
Wellesley in person. Mackenzie's Division then took up 
its allotted place in the line. In the meantime the 
French light cavalry under Milhaud made a demonstration 
against the Spaniards, who fired one volley, broke their 
ranks and fled, headed by Don Gregorio de Cuesta him- 
self. Sir Arthur brought up some British cavalry to 
flank them, and the fire of two or three batteries checked 
the enemy; Cuesta recovered his senses, succeeded in 
stopping the stampede and induced the fugitives to return 
to their position. 

Observing the confusion which now existed on the 
right of the allied position. Marshal Victor — ^who had 
marched to the assistance of King Joseph — thought that 
a smart attack upon their left just before nightfall, might 
probably terminate the action, and gain him the exclusive 
glory of winning the day; he — without communicating 
with Joseph or his brother Marshal — accordingly gave 

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40 THE 66th bbgimbnt. 

orders for an assault to be made upon Bowland HiU's 

It was nearly dark, and the " Bufifs," 48th and 66th, 
with the other regiments of the 2nd Division, were resting 
on the sunmait of the hill, ready for action, when the 
tramp of men ascending the hill was heard. The sentinels 
challenged, and a hoarse voice repHed that the new-comers 
were some of the German Legion. Upon this Eowland 
Hill and his Brigade-Major, Fordyce, rode forward, only 
to find themselves in the midst of the French. Several 
shots were fired, Fordyce fell dead and the General's 
horse was wounded. A grenadier rushed forward and 
seized his bridle, but, putting spurs to his horse, General 
Hill rode over his would-be captor, and galloped off to 
the 29th Begiment. 

A number of the enemy had now" penetrated to the 
British lines, some of them crying out that they were 
Germans, others Spaniards. But the men of the 2nd 
Division were on the alert, and met their adversaries at 
the point of the bayonet. A fierce hand-to-hand fight 
ensued; muskets were clubbed, shots fired at close quar- 
ters, and the cold steel used with deadly effect. The 
British disputed every inch of ground, but, outnumbered 
by their assailants, were gradually giving way, when a 
loud cheer was heard, followed by a crashing volley, and 
Bowland Hill at the head of the gallant 29th, charged 
up the height and fell upon the enemy, who turned and 
fled down the hill in disorder. 

The light companies of battalions were now extended 
along the front, and the troops sat down with their 
firelocks at hand, to wait for dawn of day. About 

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midnight, the Spaniards gave a false alarm, and kept up 
a musketry fire for some time, which had the effect of 
putting everyone on the qui vive, without doing much 
harm to the enemy. About 5 a.m. Victor resolved to 
renew the attack, and sent to Joseph to request that 
Sebastiani should be ordered to support him. 

Colonel Clarke gives the following account of this 
second assault. 

"Shortly before dawn on the morning of the 29th, 
we could distinguish the dark masses of the enemy 
stationed along our front, their guns in battery. The 
country was clear of wood, but broken by fissures, the 
bed of a small stream lay between the two armies. 
Suddenly, a gun was fired from the centre of the French 
line, the roar of artillery inmiediately followed, and 
their columns under cover of this fire, advanced to the 
-attack. A few moments before the firing conmienced, 
the covei'ing-sergeants of our Brigade of Guards took 
up their distance in the line, and the companies moved 
on their coverers. But the march of the enemy was 
rapid, and the shells falling so thickly, caused the 
Guards to get into confusion. The French saw their 
advantage and rushed on cheering; but their triumph 
was short, for the 1st Battalion of the 48th charged, 
and drove them like dust before the wind. We had 
just time to witness this before our turn came. Oiu: 
orders were to lie down behind the ridge until the 
enemy's column had gained the top, then to rise, 
deUver a volley, and charge. I was sent to the 
aummit by the commanding ofl&cer to let him know 
where the enemy were, and returned with the 

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42 THE 66th regiment. 

intelligence that a strong column was only fifty yards 
off. * Eeady men/ was scarcely uttered, when a shell 
fell at my feet; I threw myself on the ground, and it 
instantly exploded. The commanding officer was 
wounded in the arm, my brother subaltern had his 
right arm carried off, two men were killed, and several 
wounded. But there was no time to spare; the volley 
was delivered, and we rushed on them with the bayonet » 
At first, they appeared as if they would stand the 
charge, but when we closed, they wavered, then turned 
and ran down the hill in the wildest confusion. The 
Conmiander-in-Chief with his staff, was close to me; 
as the enemy's column advanced, a French officer 
rushed to the front, fired a pistol into the group, and 
fell himself, covered with wounds. 

"After this affair, the enemy retired to their position 
of the morning, and we sat down amidst the dying and 
the dead ; those who were so fortunate as to have a 
crust, and a little wine in their calabashes, took a little^ 
and shared with those around.^' 

About 10 a.m.. Marshal Victor held a council of war 
with his colleagues. The King and Jourdain wished to 
postpone any further operation until the arrival of 
Mortier with fresh troops, but the gallant Victor^ 
undaunted by his double repulse, over-ruled them, and it 
was decided to make a gener^al assault, from right to left^ 
on the alHed position. 

During this brief cessation of hostilities, the tired 
soldiers of both armies rushed down to the stream to 
drink; and, separated only by the narrow brook, the 
men who had been engaged in mortal combat, now met 

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ono another in perfect amity, and shared the contents of 
their canteens, and exchanged friendly (though probably 
unintelligible) greetings, until the roll of the drum, and 
shrill blast of the bugle recalled them to their respective 

Sir Arthur had in the meanwhile occupied the ravine 
with his cavalry, and Bassecour's Spanish infantry. 

Towards 4 o'clock the French renewed hostilities, and 
their columns of attack advanced in splendid style. 

General Sebastiani with the Grenadiers of the Imperial 
Guard, Yillatte's and Buffin's Divisions, and two regiments, 
of Ghasseurs-&-Cheval, was seen advancing upon the 
British left. The 23rd Light Dragoons and 1st German 
Hussars went off at a canter, to charge the head of 
these columns, but suddenly came upon a deep dry water 
course. Arentschild, who led the Germans, halted his 
men on the very brink; but the 23rd continued their 
course, and rolled down the chasm in a confused mass. 
The survivors scrambled out, re-formed, charged right 
through Villatte's Division, and found themselves con- 
fronted by a brigade of Polish Lancers and Westphalian 
Light Horse. The gallant 23rd, unable to make any 
stand against this powerful body of cavaJry, were forced 
to retreat in hot haste, leaving 207 officers and men on 
the field, victims of their glorious, but reckless charge. 

Whilst Villatte engaged the British cavalry, Sebastiani. 
with his Grenadiers advanced against Hill's position,, 
covered by a cloud of tirailleurs and by a heavy artillery 
fire. But as the tall bearskins of these picked troops^ 
appeared above the crest of the hill, they were received 
with a withering volley ; and then, cheering as only British 

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44 THE 66th begiment. 

soldiers can cheer, the "Buife," 48th, 66th and other 
regiments of Tilson's and Stewart's Brigades, charged 
down the slope with an impetuosity that carried every- 
thing before it ; and the Imperial Grenadiers — the corps 
d' elite of the French army, victors in a hundred fights — 
found that they had met their match, and facing about 
fled down the hill into the valley. The enemy had now 
had enough of it ; even Victor confessed himself beaten, 
for the French had been repulsed along the whole line. 
Marshal Jourdain — who had from the first opposed 
giving battle at all — countermanded all further attacks, 
«,nd ordered the whole army to retire beyond the Alberche. 
A desultory artillery fire was kept up for a short time, 
but by 10 p.m., the alhes remained in possession of the 

The 66th had 16 ofl&cers and 83 men killed and wounded 
«.t Talavera. Captain and Brevet-Ldeutenant-Colonel 
Adams, Lieutenants Dudgeon, Steel and Cottin* sub- 
sequently died of their wounds; Captain Stevens, 
Lieutenants A. Morris and Morgan, were wounded and 
taken prisoners. The other wounded ofl&cers were, 
Captain Kelly (who commanded the battalion during the 
action) Lieutenants Harvey, Pardy, S. Morris, Farr, 
Mc'Caxthy, Hand, Whitney, and Morris. The total loss 
of the British army was 767 killed and 3,718 wounded 
and missing; the French had 944 killed and 6,294 

Many of the wounded perished in the field of battle 
after the fight was over, owing to some smouldering 

♦ ? R. B. Dobbin. 

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cartridge-cases igniting the long dry grass ; the unhappy 

men were sufEbcated or burnt to death before they could 

be removed. Talavera gained Sir Arthur Wellesley a 

peerage, with the title of Baron Douro and Viscount 

Wellington. It was decidedly the most important^ 

action that had hitherto been fought in the Peninsula. 

Napier says, ** Hard, honest, fighting distinguished 

the battle of Talavera, and proved the exceeding 

gallantry of the French and English soldiers. The 

latter owed much to their leader's skill, and something 

to fortune; the French owed their conmianders- 

nothing; but 80,000 of their infantry vainly strove 

for three hours on the 28th to force 16,000 British 

soldiers, who were for the most part so recently drafted 

from the Militia, that many of them still bore the 

distinctions of that force on their accoutrements.'' 

On the day after the battle (29th) the Light Division 

under General Crauford arrived at Talavera. Theso 

splendid troops had just come out from England; on 

halting at Malapartida de Placentia on the previous day, 

Crauford heard that Sir Arthur was hard pressed, he 

instantly ordered the " fall in " to sound, and leaving the 

weakly men behind him, he pushed on for Talavera, and 

actually marched 62 miles in 26 hours. Only 17 men 

fell out during the march. 

The army remained encamped at Talavera until the 
3rd August, when Sir Arthur decided to fall back on 
Truscillo and Montego in consequence of the appearance 
of Soult, with Mortier* and Ney, and 34,000 men in his 
The army commenced to retire in September, but many 

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46 THE 66th begiment. 

of the sick and wounded had to be left at Talavera, and 
fell into the hands of the French. 

The 2nd Division was quartered at Montego until the 
end of the year ; it was an exceedingly unhealthy town, 
and the 66th — ^which was considered a healthy corps — 
lost nearly 100 men in four months. 

In the month of January, 1810, the French continuing, 
to advance, Lord Wellington fell back across the frontier 
into Portugal. 

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Cj^apttr 5. 

1801-1811. — Services of the 2nd Battalion continued — Massena invades 
Portugal — Busaco — Lines of Torres Vedras — Retreat of Massena 
— Forward movement of the Allies — Flying Column into Andulasia 
—The battle of Albuhera. 

the summer of 1810, the French had 360,000 
men in the Peninsula; 80,000 of these, 
including the Corps of Ney, Junot and 
Begnier, were massed at Salamanca, and 
Napoleon ordered Marshal Massena to assume 
command of this force. 
Massena declared his intention of invading Portugal 
and driving the English into the sea. To oppose the 
Marshal, Wellington had only 23,000 British and 30,000 
Portuguese troops ; so a retreat was ordered and the Allied 
army retired on Busaco. 

On the 27th and 28th September, an action was fought 
on the Sierra Busaco, in which the Allies lost 1,300 men, 
and Massena 4,500. The 66th were only partially 
engaged, but one officer. Lieutenant Fox, was killed 
during the fight. Wellington continued his retreat, and on 
the 2nd October reached the famous lines of Torres 
Vedras, which had been commenced in the previous 

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48 THE 66th begiment. 

The 2nd Division was posted on the right of the 
position, the 66th occupying Alhandra, a village on the 
Tagus; close to their lines H.M.S. "Growler" and 
several gunboats were moored. During the following 
month, the regiment was busily engaged on the entrench- 
ments constructing and strengthening batteries and other 
field-works. The lines of Torres Vedras effectually barred 
the further advance of Massena — ^who had been ignorant 
of their existence, when he so rashly vowed to drive 
Wellington out of the Peninsula. For several weeks he 
watched these impregnable defences, in the hope of 
starving his enemy into surrender; but as the AlHed 
Army were now plentifully suppHed with provisions and 
munitions-of-war by sea, this hope was in vain. At 
length Massena C* V enfant gate de la victoire/* as 
Bonaparte dubbed him, on account of his unvarying 
success in the field of battle) seeing that he had no 
chance of forcing the lines, and that his communications 
with his brother-marshals were threatened by the 
guerillas and armed peasantry under Julian Sanchez, the 
"Empecinado" and other Partida Chiefs, reluctantly 
retired to Santarem, where he went into winter-quarters. 

When Lord Wellington discovered that the French 
were in full retreat, he summoned his divisional leaders 
to Pero Negro to consult upon a forward movement, and 
sent a message to Admiral Berkeley to request him to 
provide boats to convey the troops across the Tagus, if 

On the 17th November (the day after the French 
retreated) the 2nd Division crossed the Tagus by a 
pontoon-bridge, and followed the enemy to Ghamusca, 

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where the Brigade (which was now commanded by 
Brigadier Colbome, and consisted of the 3rd Buffs, dlst 
Huntingdonshire, 4:8th Northamptonshire and 66th 
Berkshire, regiments) took up its quarters until the 
Spring of the new year. 

, On the 6th March, 1811, Massena quitted Santarem 
and retreated up the valley of Mondego, towards Ciudad 
Bodrigo. His line of retreat was marked by blood and 
flame, and the treatment the unhappy Portuguese experi- 
enced at the hands of the French soldiery has — ^to quote 
Lord Wellington's own words — "been seldom equalled, 
and never surpassed." Early in April, Massena recrossed 
the frontier, having lost during the invasion and retreat, 
by sickness and other causes, no fewer than 30,000 

The 2nd Division — which was at this time commanded 
by Marshal Beresford, ' General Hill being away on 
leave — followed in pursuit of Massena, and hanging upon 
his rear caused him much loss and^ annoyance. 

In April the Division marched on Campo-Mayor, which 
was occupied by the enemy. As the British approached 
the town, the French infantry defiled out, their flanks 
protected by cavalry. The 13th Light Dragoons charged 
and cut up the enemy's horse, but rashly attacking the 
infantry in square they were severely handled. On the 
following day the Division took up a position in sight of 
Olivenca, and Colbome's Brigade encamped on the slope 
of a barren ridge, opposite a small village where the 
staff had taken up their quarters for the night. During 
the night the French cavalry surprised the 13th picket, 
entered the village and captured the staff-officers' horses. 

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50 THE 66th bbgiment. 

The alarm w^s given, but the enemy made off, and 
escaped without loss. 

Beresford continued in pursuit, and crossing the 
Guadiana at Yalverde, marched to Almendralejo, where 
he halted for a few days. 

On the 2nd of May, a flying colunm, commanded by 
Brigadier Golbome, and consisting of his brigade, 
Murillo's Spanish brigade, 2 squadrons of the Idth 
Light Dragoons and 3 guns, was dispatched into 
Andalusia to feel the enemy and ascertain his force. 
Having accomplished his object, Golbome retired across 
the Sierra Morena, and rejoined the Division at Albuhera, 
after marching 250 miles in 11 days. 

Marshal Beresford had taken up a position on the 
heights of Albuhera, to cover the siege of Badajos, 
information having been received that Soult was 
advancing from Seville, at the head of 23,000 
veterans, to the relief of the beleaguered fortress. 
Beresf ord's force comprised the 2nd Division and a strong 
body of Spanish and Portuguese troops under Blake and 
Gastanos ; in all about 32,000 men, of which nimiber 
only 7,000 were British soldiers. 

The Albuhera range extends for about four miles, and, 
being of easy ascent, is practicable for artillery and 
cavalry; the Albuhera and its tributary the Feria (a 
mere rivulet) flow along the eastern base of the hills ; 
above the river is situated the village of Albuhera, at the 
junction of the roads to Badajos and Seville, Talavera 
and Valverde. Near the village, on the left of the line, 
Golbome's Brigade was stationed; the Spanish and 
Portuguese held the right. 

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Soult arrived on the evening of May 15th, and he soon 

perceived that Beresford had neglected to occupy a 

wooded range of hills between the Albuhera and Peria. 

The French Marshal at once made use of this range, 

postitig behind it a force of 15,000 men and 30 guns ; of 

the close proximity of this force to his right wing 

Beresford was entirely ignorant, and only reckoned on 

the enemy attacking his front. The French advanced 

on the position early on the morning of the 16th; 

Godinot, with the light cavalry and ten guns, made a 

feint of attacking the village ; whilst Soult led a heavy 

column of infantry supported by artillery, against the 

Spaniards on the right. He soon drove them from the 

heights, and commenced to deploy his force along the 

position. Colbome's Brigade was hurried up to check 

this movement, and had almost succeeded in driving the 

French Infantry back, when a strong force of PoKsh 

Lancers, and Chasseurs (which had got iround the right 

of the line unperceived) charged the brigade in rear, and 

threw it into confusion. 

But we will here quote Colonel Clarke, who gives a 

graphic account of the part played by the 66th at — 

*' Albuhera, fatal Md of Strife ! " 

*' On the evening of the l5th May," the Colonel 

writes, " We arrived at th§ heights of Albuhera. After 

we had been a couple of hours in line, I had to parade 

for picket. My picket was placed in front of the 

bridge Albuhera-a narrow stone bridge, wide enough for 

two horses to walk abreast. About 8 a.m. on the 16th, 

the enfemy sent a brigade of guns and a force of cavalry 

towards the bridge. The guns commenced a smart 
- e2 

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52 THE 66th regiment. 

fire and the cavalry dashed forward, as if they were 
going to charge the bridge. Marshal Beresford, who 
had come down to my picket, asked me what r^narks 
I had been able to make during the night. I told him. 

" He then asked some questions of another ofi&cer. 
I said to a friend, ' This is a feint, they are going to 
turn our right.' 

"The Marshal heard me, and quickly said, 'They 
are going to retreat, gentlemen. I expect to attack 
their rear-guard by 9 o'clock.' 

**A few moments after, an aide-de-camp galloped 
up from the right, where the Spaniards under Blake 
and Castanos were stationed, and Colbome's Brigade 
was ordered to .move to the right in open column of 
companies at the double. The fact was, our right was 
turned. The rain was falling fast and the ground was 
very heavy. When near the point on which we were 
to form, it was perceived that we were marching rear 
rank in front ; we countermarched, on the march, 
under a tremendous cannonade, and I can safely say 
that the movement was never better performed by the 
66th on its own parade ground. Fifty yards from us 
was an isolated hill, its summit enveloped in a heavy 
fog. We wheeled into line and opened a destructive 
fire upon the enemy, who were in close column. The 
order was given to * charge * ; when quite close to the . 
enemy the 'halt* was sounded, followed by the 'retire'; 
then we were again ordered to advance. At this 
moment the French cavalry got round to our right 
flank under cover of the fog. The * Buffs ' had been 
ordered to reform column, their right wing to cover 

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the rear of the Brigade; to effect this they faced 
about, a very dangerous manoeuvre when near an 
enemy. The enemy's cavahy suddenly appearing in 
their rear, great confusion ensued. We advanced again, 
but at that moment a crowd of PoKsh Lancers and 
Chasseurs-i-Cheval swept along the rear of the 
Brigade ; our men now ran into groups of six or eight, 
to do as best they could; the officers snatched up 
muskets and joined them, determined to sell their lives 
dearly. Quarter was not asked, and rarely given. 
Poor Colonel Waller, of the Quarter-Master-General's 
staff, was cut down close to me ; he put up his hands 
asking for quarter, but the ruffian cut his fingers off. 
My Ensign, Hay, was run through the lungs by a 
lance which came out of his back; he fell but got up 
again. The Lancer dehvered another thrust, the 
lance striking Hay's breast-bone ; down he went, and 
the Pole rolled over in the mud beside him. In the 
evening I went to seek my friend, and found him sit- 
ting up to his hips in mud and water. He was quite 
cool and collected, and said there were many worse 
than him. 

'* The Lancers had been promised a doubloon each, 
if they could break the British Une. Li the m^We, 
when mixed up with the Lancers, Chasseurs-i-Cheval 
and French infantry, I came into collision with a 
Lancer, and being knocked over was taken prisoner ; 
an officer ordered me to be conducted to the rear. 
Presently a charge was made by our Dragoon Guards 
in which I Hberated myself, and ran to join the 
Fusilier Brigade at the foot of the hill. When I got 

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54 THE 66th begiment. 

close to the 7th regiment, they knelt to receive cavalry, 
and I threw myself down to avoid their jfire, I got up, 
and passing through the regiment met Lieutenant 
Anderson carrying a colour. He said, ' I thought, my 
dear fellow you must have been riddled, it was only 
presence of mind saved you.' I went a few paces 

to the rear, and fell exhausted." 

In this hand-to-hand encounter, Colbome's Brigade 
suffered terribly ; of the four regiments composing it, the 
31st alohe was able to form square when attacked by 
the cavalry; the "Buffs," 4:8th and 66th were nearly 

At length Brigadier Lumley, who was in the plain 
below, saw the desperate state of affairs, and sent four 
squadrons of heavy cavalry £|.gainst the lancers : at the 
same tii^e the 29th Foot, Houghton's Brigade and some 
artillery under Major Julius Hartmann came up to the 
assistance of their well-nigh vanquished comrades. 

The fight was now continued with redoubled fury, 
and the carnage on both sides was awful ; the regiments 
present had lost more than two-thirds of their men. 

Marshal Beresford tried all he could to induce the 
Spaniards to advance ; he even sei;sed a Spanish Ensign 
in his powerful grasp and Uterally carried him, colours 
and all, to the front, trusting that the regiment would 
follow. But the recreant Spaniards remained inmoiovable, 
and the Ensign ran back as soon as he was released. 
The ammunition now began to fail, and the British fire 
slackened, while another French column was established, 
in advance upon the right flank. 
Beresford saw that a retreat was absolutely imperative. 

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and gave the unwelcome order. But at this critical 
moment, Colonel Hardinge, entirely on his own responsi- 
bility, rode off to the 4:th Division, which had just come 
up from Badajos, and induced its leader. General Cole, 
to advance, supported by Colonel Abercrombie with the 
3rd Brigade of the 2nd Division. 

Cole mounted the hill, attacked the Lancers, who 
were galloping about the captured guns, drove them off, 
recaptured the guns, and then dashed up to the right of 
Houghton's Brigade, just as Abercrombie passed to the 
front on its left. 

"Such a gallant line," writes Napier, ''issuing 
from the midst of the smoke, and rapidly separating 
itself from the confused and broken multitude, 
startled the enemy's masses, which were increasing 
and pressing onward as to an assured victory. 
. ... In vain did . Soult with voice and gesture 
animate his Frenchmen, in rain did the mass itself 
bear up, and, fiercely striving, fire indiscriminately 
' upon friends and foes, while the horsemen hovering on 
the flank endeavoured to charge the advancing line. 
Nothing could stop that astonishing infantry. . . . 
In vain did the French reserves mix with the struggling 
multitude to sustain the fight, their efforts only 
increased the irremediable confusion, and the mighty 
mass, breaking like a loosened cliff went headlong 
down the steep. . . Eighteen-hundred unwounded 
men, the remnant of 6,000 unconquerable British 
soldiers, stood triumphant on the fatal hill.'* ^ 
The fight was over, and by 3 o'clock all firing had 

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56 th:^ 66th begiment. 

The Allies lost 7,000, and the French 8,000 killed and 
wounded on this bloody field. The 66th had 16 officers 
and 310 men killed, wounded, and missing. The 
regiment went into action 400 strong, and on the 
morrow only 53 bayonets mustered at parade. Captain 
Benning (commanding the regiment) Lieutenants 
Shrewbridge, Ensigns Walker and Colter were killed; 
Captain f'ems; Lieutenants St. George, Hicken, 
L'Estrange, Harvey, McCarthy, Codd, Hand and 
Chambers; Ensigns Hay, Mack and Warren, were 
wounded. When Benning fell. Captain Goldie assumed 
conmiand, and was granted a medal and promoted to a 
majority for this action ; >a medal was also sent to the 
relatives of Captain Benning. 

After the battle of Albuhera the 3rd, 29th, 31st, 48th, 
57th and 66th regiments were so reduced in nimibers 
that they were formed into a Provisional battalion. The 
31st and 66th continued together until the termination 
of the war ; Lieutenant-Colonel Alexaaider Leith of the 
31st taking command of the two corps. 

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Cl^apter B. 

1811-1813. — Services of 2nd Battalion continued^-Arroyo de Molinos 
— Changes in the Brigade — The 66th reinforced — Retreat to 
Ooria — ^General Rowland Hill and the 66th — Campaign of 1813 — 
The Battle of Vittoria. 

October, General Eowland Hill — who had 
rejoined from leave, and now commanded in 
North Estramadura — received orders to drive 
Geneiral Girard frpm Caceres, so. that the 
district might be opened to Murillo's foraging 
parties. Girard left Caceres in very wet and 
stormy weather, and was pursued by Hill who caught 
him up at Arroyo-de-Molinos. At 2 o'clock on the 
morning of 28th October, 1811, the British troops halted 
within half-a-mile of Arroyo ; Hill at once formed three 
columns of attack, the infantry on the right and left, 
the cavalry in the centre. 

The French were on the move, and one brigade had 
already marched. Girard was in total ignorance of the 
proximity of his foe, until a terrific shout arose above 
the noise of the elements — ^for there was a sharp storm 
at the time. The French General, who had not yet 
mounted, thought it was a mere guerrilla raid, when 

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58 THE 66th regiment. 

suddenly he heard /the bagpipes of the 71st and 92nd 
Highlanders playing ** Hey, Johnny Cope I " and the 
next minute the left British column came charging down 
the street. 

The French were taken by surprise ; their cavalry was 
driven to the eiid of the town, while their infantry 
hastily formed squares and endeavoured to cover their 

Girard who was badly wounded, strove to keep his 
men together and retreat in good order ; but his force 
was entirely surrounded, and he only succeeded in 
bringing off 600 men. The French lost upwards of 2,000 
killed, wounded, and taken prisoners, besides all their 
baggage and artillery. The Allies had very few men 
placed hor^ de combat. After this brilliant affair, Hill 
retired to Portal^gre. 

The new year 1812 found the 66th with their Brigade 
in Portugal ; the Brigade remained in that country until 
March, when it once more advanced into Spain. 

During the sieges of jCiudad Eodrigo and Badajos the 
regiment, with the rest of Hill's force, was quartered at 
Merida, on the banks of the Guadiana, covering the 
siege of Badajos. About this time a strong draft arrived 
from England, and the ranks of the 66th werQ once 
more filled. 

Changes too had taken place in the Brigade, which 
was now commanded by Major-General Byng, and 
consisted of the 3rd, 81st, 57th, and 66th regiments. 

In June, 1812, the 2nd Division was again posted at 
Albuhera, in expectation of an attack by a French force 
under Comte d'Erlon. 

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Every measure was taken to strengthen the position 
and give the enemy a warm reception, but no enemy 

In September, Hill advanced on Truxillo, crossed the 
Tagus and arrived early in October, at Aranjuez, about 
35 miles from Madrid. 

The French having collected in great force in the 
neighbourhood of the capital, Hill deemed it advisable 
to retire on Giudad Kodrigo and the northern Portuguese 
frontiers. He accordingly retreated to Albade Tormos 
and from thence, by way of Salamanca and Oiudad 
Bodrigo, to Goria, where he estabHshed his head-quarters 
for the winter. 

During this retreat, the French cavalry hanging upon 
the rear of the Division (which marched in solid columns 
and squares) caused some annoyance at different times, 
and in one of the skirmishes that took place, two 66th 
men were captured by the enemy. The retreat was long 
and fatiguing, and provisions not too plentiful ; but thanks 
to the vigilance of the Brigadier and the excellent 
management of the Brigade-Gommissary, the men of 
General Byng's Brigade were scarcely a single day 
without food. 

The conduct of the 66th while on the line of march 
was admirable, and elicited the warm praise both of the 
General aind Brigadier. 

Eowland Hill had a great liking for the "Berkshire" 
regiment, and specially selected it to foi:m part of his 
conmiand when ordered to the Peninsula. 

It is said, that at the time the officer commanding the 
Cork district asked General Hill why he chose a 

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60 THE 66th regiment. 

battalion, the men of which, though stout built, were 
somewhat low-sized. 

"Perhaps you may find my short fellows foremost in 
the advance some day," retorted Hill. 

His opinion of the physical qualities of the 
"Berkshires" was justified on more than one occasion 
during the war; notably so at Talavera, when the 
quick, dashing movements of the battalion attracted the 
attention of the Commander-in-Chief. 

"What regiment is that?" Wellesley asked, as he 

, watched the 66th charge the enemy down hill, put them 

to flight, and then regain its position with unusual celerity. 

" The 66th, Sir " replied General Hill ; and turning to 
one of his staff, he added, "You see my short-legged 
fellows know how to advance." 

The Winter of 1812-13 saw Lord Wellington on 
something like an equality with his adversaries in point 
of numbers; nearly half-a-million of the veterans of 
France had perished on the snow-clad steppes and hills 
of Bussia, and large drafts had been drawn from the 
ajmies in Spain to reinforce Napoleon's shattered legions, 
and enable him to make one grand effort to retrieve his 
fallen fortunes. These reductions and the losses inflicted 
on the French troops by the guerrilleros, had brought 
Joseph Bonaparte's forces down to about 197,000 men; 
while the Allied armies had swelled to 200,000. Less 
than half this force,, however, were British, Germans, or 
Portuguese, on whom alone reliance could safely be 
placed ; the rest were Spaniards, but as Wellington had 
a*t last obtained from the Cortes the supreme command 
of all the Spanish troops, he had been able to train 

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** los Valerosos" into something like what soldiers should 

Active operations were commenced about the middle 
of May, when the Allied forces were concentrated and 
put in motion against tlie enemy. 

On the 19th May, 1813, Sir Eowland Hill broke up 
his quarters at Coria, and advanced through the Pass of 
Banos, on Salamanca. His fc«:ce consisted of the 2nd 
Division, three regiments of Portuguese infantry, and five 
regiments of Cavalry, in all, about 17,000 men with 
24 guns. The weather was beautifully fine, the roads 
unusually good, and the troops were in the highest spirits 
and confident of a successful campaign. 

The column came in sight of Salamanca on the 28th^ 
having marched nearly 200 miles in eight days, and a 
body of French troops was descried retiring on the 
heights to the eastward of the city. Hill at once 
ordered a brigade of cavalry and a battery of horse 
artillery to start off in pursuit ; and this force came up 
with, and dispersed the enemy, taking beliween two and 
three hundred prisoners. 

After this affair, HilFs corps and the Light Division 
encamped at La Urbada, fifteen miles from Salamanca, 
to await the arrival of Sir Thomas Graham with the 
other divisions. 

The Allied army having assembled, a forward movement 
took place, the different columns marching, as far as 
possible, parallel to one another. Before this advance 
the enemy retired, breaking down the bridge that spanned 
the Douro at Toro. 

Hill forded the river on the 4:th June, and marched on 

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62 THE 66th begiment. 

Duenos and Xorqueniada ;, on the 12th, the French 
showed themselves in considerable force on the heights 
of Burgos, and their tirailleurs and other light troops 
engaged the advanced-guard, but they made no real stand, 
and having blown up the Castle of Burgos fell back 
across the Ebro. The enemy's flank was turned, and 
he was com,pelled to abandon position after position. 

Biscay was evacuated with the exception of the 
fortified towns of San Sebastian, Santona and Bilboa; 
the seaports were instantly seized by British war-ships, 
and Wellington was thus able to change his base of 
operations from Portugal to the northern coast of Spain. 

Joseph Bonaparte, dreading lest hd should be cut off 
from his friends in the north, retired hastily from 
Madrid, and fell back across the Ebro. 

Sir Eowland Hill, after the destruction of the Castle 
of Burgos, pushed forward his corps to the Ebro, crossed 
that river at the strong defile of Puente d' Arenas, and 
and so turned the fortified bridge of Pancorvo, which 
was held by the French. 

A long and fatiguing march brought the Allies in front 
pi Vittoria (where Joseph Bonaparte had concentrated 
his forces), a small town in the Basque Provinces, 190 
miles north-north-east of Madrid, and 70 miles west of 
the frontier fortress of tampeluna. 

Vittoria is situated on a gentle elevation over-looking 
a plain that stretches down to the river Zadora; this 
river — or rather stream — ^keeps a westerly course along 
the plain for two or three miles, and then sweeping 
round to the south, flows through a narrow gorge called 
the Puebla Pass, which separates the Morillo and 

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Paebla Mountains. The main road from Madrid to 
Bayonne enters the plain at the Puebla Pass, traverses 
it in a north-easterly direction, passes through Vittoria, 
find again touches the Zadora at Durana. 

Joseph placed his 70,000 men in position, along the 
main road, from Durana on the extreme right to the 
heights of Puebla on the extreme left : Eeille held the 
ri^ht of the French line ; Gazan the centre, and Maransin 
the left ; D'Erlon's division formed a second line, on the 
centre and left. Fifty guns were placed so as to 
command the bridges of Mendoza, Tres Puentes, Villodas, 
and Nanclares, by which the Allies must cross to attack 
the position. Joseph, however, neglected to break down 
any of these bridges, nor did he defend them with field- 
■<7orks ; moreover he left Puebla un-entrenched, and the 
heights above insufl&ciently defended. 

Wellington had with him 60,000 British and Portuguese 
troops, and 18,000 Spaniards ; he disposed his forces as 
follows :— On the left, Sir Thomas Graham with 20,000 
men was to attack Eeille and force a passage! at Gamara 
Mayor and Aiiaga; Wellington himself, with the 3rd, 
4th, 7th, and Light Divisions, the heavy cavalry and a 
strong force of artillery, was in the centre of the line, 
and purposed carrying the bridges at Mendoza, Tres 
Puentes, Villodas, and Nanclares ; on the right was Sir 
Rowland Hill, with the 2nd Division, Murillo's Spaniards, 
Silviera's Portuguese, and some cavalry and guns ; he 
was ordered to force the Puebla Pass, assail Maransin on 
the heights, and so turn and menace the enemy's left. 

The morning of the 21st June dawned in thick mist 
and drizzling rain ; at an early hour the three Allied 

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64 THE 66th regiment. , 

columns quitted their encampments on the Bayas Hills 
and advanced to the positions assigned to them. Sir 
Rowland Hill's corps was the first engaged. 

About 10 a.m., Brigadier Byng was ordered to seize 
the village of Puebla, which was held by a battalion of 
Voltigeurs, but was not entrenched. Byng accordingly 
pusjied forward the light companies of the 31st, 57th, 
and 66th to the attack. These companies moved out at 
the double, supported by the rest of the brigade, and 
after a brief, though sharp fight, gained possession of 
the village. 

Hill then sent Murillo's Spanish division to climb the 
Puebla heights and attack Maransin : the 1st Brigade 
had nearly reached the summit when it was vigorously 
attacked, and Murillo received a severe wound. The 
2nd Brigade came up and joined in the struggle, but the 
French General Gazan— aware of the importance of the 
position — despatched a fresh regiment to Maransin's 
assistance. The 50th or West Kent regiment, and the 
71st and 92nd Highlanders then advanced to support 
the Spaniards, whereupon Gazan sent Villatte's division 
to reinforce Maransin. Hill seeing that his troops on 
the heights were out-numbered and hard pressed, ordered 
a Portuguese brigade to go to their assistance, while he 
himself, with Byng's brigade and the 28th, 34:th, and 
39th regiments, turned to the left, marched to the Puebla 
Pass, and about 1 p.m., carried the village of Subijana 
de Alava at the point of the bayonet'; and thus he 
connected his own right with the troops on the mountains. 

In the meanwhile the fighting on the hill-side was 
continued with unabated fury, and for some time the 

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result was doubtful. Cadogan the brave Colonel of the 
71st fell mortally wounded ; maddened by the death of 
their beloved <ihief, the Highlanders charged their foes 
with redoubled vigour, and gained a footing on the 
sunmiit of the hill. They were well supported by the 
50th and 92nd, and a battalion of Portuguese Ca9adores ; 
the enemy wavered; the Highlanders pressed their 
advantage, and at length remained in undisputed 
possession of the heights. 

The attack on the French centre had been equally 
successful, and towards 6 p.m; Joseph ordered his 
troops to retire along the Salvatierra road. The French 
at first retired in good order, but the British followed 
hard on their heels, and soon a scene of indescribable 
confusion ensued. The artillery-drivers cut their traces 
and abandoned their guns, and the vanquished infantry 
fled in disordered masses towards Salvatierra; the 
cavalry alone maintained a semblance of order and 
covered the retreat of the fugitives; 

General Eeille on the right had made a vigorous defence 
against Graham's troops, but when the French centre 
and left were defeated, the Allied cavalry, passing 
through Yittoria, took him in rear and forced him to 
retreat to Betonio, and from thence to Metauco ; it was 
not till he had passed that village, some hours after night- 
fall, that the last shot was fired. 

So ended the battle of Vittoria, the crowning victory 
of the Peninsula War. 

The trophies were innumerable. The French lost all 
their artillery, with the exception of two light field- 
pieces ; all the parks and depdt from Madrid, Valladolid 

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66 I THE 66th begimbnt. 

and Burgos, carriages, ammunition, treasure, everything 
fell into the hands of the AlHes. Captain Wyndham 
of the 10th Hussars captured Joseph Bonaparte's private 
carriage, and found therein Jourdain's Baton of command 
and a valuable painting by Corregio. These trophies 
Wellington forwarded to the Prince . Regent, who in 
return sent him his commission as Field-Marshal. 

The Allies lost 5,176 in killed, wounded, and missing ; 
the 66th regiment had 3 Officers* and 51 men placed 
hors de combat The French lost aboilt 6,000 men, 
including several hundred prisoners. 

Alison in writing of this victory, remarks that, ** The 
campaign of Marlborough presents no example of so 
remarkable a triumph; the campaigns of Cressy and 
Agincourt were fruitless in comparison." 

.At one blow the French were driven from the 
Peninsula, and the soi-disant King's crown dropped 
from his head. 

The nameB of these officers are not given in the Becords. 

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Cj^apt^r 7, 

1813-1817.— Services of the 2ncl Battalion concluded — Pursuit of the 
- French — Marshal Soult reinstated — Attack on the heights of 
Boncesvalles — Fighting in the Pyrenees — Nivelle — Nive — Orthes 
— Toulouse — ^Termination of the Peninsular War — ^The 2nd 
Battalion return home — Embark for St Helena — Incorporated 
witii the Ist Battalion. 

HE allied Army advanced, the day after the 

battle, in pursuit of the vanqnished foe. 

Hill led his column to Barrisplano, two 

leagues from the fortress of Pampeluna 

(which was still held by the French) and 

there encamped, on the 27th June. 

The 66th, with the other regiments of Byng's Brigade, 

was now attached to the Spanish Division commanded 

by General Murillo, who received instructions from Sir 

Bowland Hill to take up a position on the top of the 

Pyrenees, and hold the Pass of Eoncesvalles. 

On receiving the news of the battle of Vittoria,. 

Napoleon at once reinstated Marshal Soult in command 

of the Peninsular army, with the rank and style of 

Lieutenant de V Empereur. Soult hastened to Bayonne, 

which he fortified, and there collected the remains of the 

beaten armies. By the 24th July he had 70,000 men 

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68 THE 66th begiment. 

and 60 gans in position to force the passes of Boncesvalles 
and Maya. 

On the morning of the 25th July, under cover of a 
dense fog,. Soult's lieutenant, General Olausel, advanced 
with 18,000 troops against Murillo and Byng, who held 
the heights of Altobiscar in the Boncesvalles ; the allied 
Generals could not muster more than 5,000 bayonets. 

With this force they held their position from dawn to 
dusk, and repeatedly drove back their assailants, inflict- 
ing upon them severe loss. Towards evening Soult sent 
a strong column to reinforce Olausel, and the AUies 
found themselves surrounded by a force nearly six times 
their number. Byng's brigade was hotly engaged the 
whole day, but being well under cover the loss was 
comparatively trifling. The Spaniards fought with 
determination, and their leader Murillo exhibited great 
personal courage. Mounted on a fine Andalusian, the 
Spa4ish General, sabre in hiind, encouragied his troops 
both by voice, and gesture, and repeatedly exposed 
himself to the enemy's fire.^ At length an officer rode 
up, and informed him that his small force was surrounded 
and a retreat was inevitable. 

" Ca/rajo I " exclaimed the fiery Spaniard ; " they will 
not dare to surround my Englishmen I " and with the 
well known war-cry Mueran los Francescas I he excited 
his soldiers to fresh efforts. 

But Byng saw that if they did not retire, their .force 
must either surrender or be annihilated, and he therefore 
induced Murillo to fall back. 

The fighting was however continued, almost without 
intemussion, from the 26th to the 30th July ; the 66th 

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was in action every day; and dxiring these operations 
lost 2 officers* and 25 men killed and wounded. 

On the 30th July, Soult received a severe check and 
was forced to retire in haste up the Pyrenean valleys, 
hotly pursued by the Allies, buring the nine days 
fighting the French lost 15,000 men including 4,000 
prisoners; and so dispirited were their soldiers by 
repeated defeats, that on the 2nd August, at the affairs 
of Echellar and Ivantelly, 6,000 veterans broke and fled 
before the attack of 1,500 British. 

General Byng was four times mentioned in despatches, 
and his Brigade received the thanks of the Commander- 
in-Chief for its services in the various actions in the 

From the 2nd August to the 8th November, the column 
to which the 66th was attached remained in the Pyrenees, 
covering the siege of San Sebastian and the blockade of 
Pampeluna ; when these fortresses fell it advanced into 
French territory. 

Soult's efforts to carry the war into Spain had failed, 
and Wellington prepared to invade France ; the nation 
which had inflicted the horrors of war upon nearly every 
European country, was now herself to feel the iron-hand 
of a conqueror. 

On the 10th November the enemy's fortified position 
on the Nivelle, covering Bayonne was attacked. ,Byng 
was ordered to advance against one of the strongest 
points of the French line of defence ; and the 31st and 
66th were sent forward to storm a powerful redoubt. 
With loud cheers the two battalions crossed the 
* See Appendix. 


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70 THE 66th begiment. 

intervening ground, led by Lieutenants-Colonels Leith 
31st and Kicol 66th. These officers leaped the ditch 
together and scrambling up the parapet, entered the 
work ahead of their men, who however quickly followed 
them, and drove the French out of the redoubt. 

On this occasion the 66th had two officers mortally 
wounded, and 46 men killed and wounded. 

The day after the passage of the Nivelle, Byng's 
brigade went into the cantonments at Espilette. 

Soult's position in the entrenched camp at Bayonne — 
commanding as it did the bridges over the Nive and 
Adour — was very advantageous for foraging, while the 
Allies found it a matter of considerable difficulty to 
obtain supplies. Wellington, therefore, resolved to 
extend his cantonments by forcing the passage of the 
Nive, extending his line to the Adour, and driving Soult 
back under the cannon of Bayonne. 

The attack was made on the morning of the 9th 

Hill's corps forded the Nive at Cambo, and established 
itself betweeii the Nive and Adour ; Beresford, with the 
centre column, crossed by a pontoon bridge ; and Hope 
and Allen, with the left column and Vandeleur's cavalry, 
drove in Soult's advanced posts in front of the entrenched 

The passage was forced, and the French left driven 
close under the walls of Bayonne, but the Allies found 
themselves divided (the right from the centre and left) 
by the Nive — an almost unfordable stream — with 
Beresford's pontoon bridge as their sole means of com- 
munication ; while Soult was in a position to throw the 

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NIVE. 71 

whole weight of his force on the one flank or the other 
at pleasure. 

On the 10th, 11th, and 12th December, the French 
Marshal directed his attacks against the British left and 
centre, but was repulsed with considerable loss. 

During the night of the 12th there was a heavy rain- 
fall, and the swollen waters of the Nive carried away 
the pontoon bridge: Hill with the right column, was 
thus isolated on the right bank of the river, and Soult 
seized this favourable opportunity to attack him in force. 

Early on the 13th December, Soult launched 35,000 
men against Hill's front, while 7,000 more threatened 
his rear. To resist this attack Hill only had some 14,000 
men with 14 guns. 

He disposed his force as follows. The Left (28th, 
38th, and 39th), under Brigadier Pringle^ occupied a 
wooded, broken ridge, covering the shattered pontoon 
bridge, and separated from the centre by a stream and a 
chain of ponds in a deep, marshy valley. General 
Stewart commanded the centre, which was posted on a 
crescent-shaped height on both sides of the village of 
St. Pierre ; the 7l8t Highlanders being on the left ; the 
60th and 92nd on the right ; Ashworth's Portuguese in 
advance ; 12 guns massed in front of the village to sweep 
the high road ; and Le Cor's Portuguese with 2 guns, 
were placed in reserve, half-a-mile in rear. The right, 
under Byng, consisted of the 3rd Buffs, 57th and 31st 
and 66th ; the two latter corps being formed into one 
battalion, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Leith of 
the 31st ; the Buffs occupied a position in advance ; the 
other regiments of the brigade were covered by an 

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72 THE 66th begiment. 

extensive sheet of water, which nearly filled the valley. 
The ijiature of the ground and the state of the roads 
prevented the action of cavalry, and for the same reason 
Soult was unable to attack with large masses, but was 
forced to bring his troops into line in succession, and 
so fight in dptail;' this tended to counterbalance his 
immense superiority in numbers. 

Shortly after 8 a.m., the attack commenced. Soult 
forced the British pickets to retire, and the noise of 
battle spread along the hill side. General Darican 
attacked Pringle, whilst Abb^ assailed the village of 
St. Pierre; Byn'g*s brigade was engaged with 
D'Armagnac*s corps. 

Abba's attack on St. Pierre was vigorously delivered, 
and Ashworth's Portuguese were driven back ; the 50th 
was terribly cut up, and the 71st Highlanders were with- 
drawn out of action by their Colonel, who was afterwards 
cashiered for his pusillanimous conduct. At this crisis 
the gallant 92nd charged the French and forced them to 
give way, but more French troops were brought up, and 
a battery of horse-artillery opened upon the 92nd at 
short range. The carnage was terrible, the ground was 
covered with the dead, and numbers of wounded men 
were s^en crawling painfully to the rear. Byng's 
brigade, too, was hard pressed, for the ** Buffs" were 
overwhelmed by numbers and forced to fall back upon 
the other regiments. 

The situation of the Alhes seemed desperate, and 
Hill had no resource but to bring his reserves into action. 
He rode up to the 71st, and ordered them back to their 
position; the brave Highlanders, burning to efface the 

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memory of their mihappy chiefs weakness, rushed to 
the attack with such fury that the French centre was 
taken aback, and gave way; Da Costa's Portuguese 
brigade came up /to support the 71st, and the 92nd 
having reformed in rear of St. Pierre, were led forth by 
Colonel Cameron — ^with pipes ** skirling " and colours 
flying— to the charge ; at the saitie time, Byng advanced 
with the " Buffs," 57th, 31st, and 66th, supported by 
Le Cor^ At first the French seemed inclined to face 
their foes, but an officer at their head, suddenly turned 
his horse, and appeared to order a retreat, for they 
faced about and retired across the valley to their 
original position. 

As the 66th advanced, they perceived directly in their 
front, two light guns, covered by a party of Chasseurs- 
^.-Cheval. Captain Bulstrode (66th) at once placed 
himself at the head of his company, and rushed forward 
to capture these field-pieces. The French gunners 
opened fire, and the gallant Bulstrode fell, his jaw 
shattered by a grape-shot. 

Lieutenant John Clarke (author of ** Eeminiscences 
of the Peninsula") took command of the company; a 
well-deHvered volley knocked over half of the Chasseurs, ^ 
and sent the rest to the right-about ; before the French 
gunners could reload, the Berkshire men were upon 
them. Corporal Davis was the first man to reach the 
guns, and he called out, '' I take these guns in the name 
of King George I " 

The Frenchmen did not wait to dispute the corporal's 
right to the field-pieces, but retired precipitately. For his 
gallantry on this occasion. Corporal Davis was promoted. 

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74 THE 66th regiment. 

The pontoon bridge over the Nive had^® valley, 
been repaired, and Lord Wellington ai 
reinforcements; but Sir Eowland Hill had 
own victory, and *' after a manner'* writes Napie: 
in less eventful times would have made him the hero 

This action was one of the most desperate of 
whole war ; 5,000 men were killed or wounded in three 
hours, upon a space of one mile square. Lord Wellington 
remarked that he had never seen a field so thickly strewn 
with^ dead. 

The British lost 1,500 men, out of which number, the 
66th had 2 ofScers* and 85 men killed and wounded. 

Colonel Leith, 31st, who commanded the 31st and 
66th, was severely wounded, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Nicol, 66th, succeeded him in command of the two 

Operations in the South of France were resumed 
towards the middle of February, 1814. 

The right wing of the allied Army broke up from its 
cantonments in front of Bayonne on the 14:th, an^ 
the following day Sir Eowland Hill attacked the heights 
of Garris, near to St. Palais, and carried them after 
sharp struggle, in which the 66th lost 2 officers and 
men killed^and wounded. 

By the 26th, the investment of Bayonne was completed, 
and Soult, driven from the shelter qf its guns, took up a 
strong position on the heights of Orthes, in rear of th( 
Gave du Pau ; his force numbered some 40,000 of all armfj 

* Captain Bulstrode, and one other officer, whose name is not mentioi 
in the Records. 

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^P On tHe 27th, Wellington advanced to the attack with 

37,000 Anglo-Portuguese veterans, including 4,000 cavalry 
and 4:8 guns. Beresford, with the left, was to turn the 
French right; Picton, with the "fighting 5th Division," 
was to attack their centre, and Hill, with the right, to 
force the passage of the Orthes, and turn the enemy's 

The general movement commenced at 9 a.m. On the 
British left. General Cole carried the village of St. Boes^ 
after a fierce and bloody fight; but on attempting to 
advance from the village to the open ground, his troops 
were met with a heavy concentric fire from Eeille's 
artillery. Five times did Boss's Brigade and Vasconcello's 
Portuguese make the attempt without success, and after 
three hours hard fighting, Cole was forced to retire them. 

Picton too, was roughly repulsed in his attack on the 
French centre ; and it is said that Soult, in his exultation, 
exclaimed, ** At last I have him ! ** But his triumph 
was short-lived, for Wellington — changing his plan of 
attack — sent the 7th Division and Vivian's cavalry to 
support the left at St. Boes, and the 3rd and 6th 
Divisions to Picton's assistance*. These simultaneous 
. attacks were perfectly successful, and the French were 
forced to retire in some confusion.. 

This movement opened up the Pass of St. Boes, and 
the 4th and 7th Divisions, Vivian's cavalry and two 
batteries of artillery, immediately pushed through and 
spread out beyond. By this time Sir Eowland Hill's 
Corps had forded the Gave d' Oleron, above the town of 
Orthes, and turned the enemy's left. 

Soult ordered a general retreat, which was made in, 

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76 THE 66th bbgiment. 

good order at first; but Sir Stapylton Cotton and Lord 
Edward Somerset, with the British Dragoons, pressed 
the fugitives so hard, that their retreat became a rout. 

The Allies lost 2,383 killed, wounded, and missing; 
amongst the wounded was Lord Wellington, who was 
shot in the thigh. 

Soult lost about 4,000 men. 

On the 2nd March, Sir JElowland Hill's corps attacked 
a French column, under General Harispe, which was 
posted near the town of Aire. Li this affair the 66th 
was foremost in the fight, and the senior major, 
Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Dodgin, received a severe 

^ During the advance of the Allied- army, the 66th was 
engaged in several minor affairs, previous to the crowning 
victory at Toulouse, on the 10th April. 

After the battle of Orthes, Soult retreated to Toulouse, 
a town surrounded by fortified suburbs, the great canal 
of Langiiedoc and strong walls. Here the final battle 
of the Peninsular War was fought, and Soult was defeated 
with a loss of 3,000 men, including five general officers. 
In this action, Byng's brigade was employed in a false 
attack on the tete du pont on the left bank of the 
Garonne, and being sheltered by the houses of the suburb 
of St. Cyprian, suffered very little loss. 

On the 11th April the hostile armies remained on the 
same ground, but during the night Soult decamped 
leaving 1,600 wounded on the field. Next day Wellington 
entered Toulouse, and was warmly received by the 
citizens, many of whom had mounted the white cockade 
— the badge of the Bourbonists. That same afternoon 

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the news arrived that Napoleon Bonaparte had abdicated, 
and that Louis XVni had been proclaimed Eong of the 

Thus ended this long and arduous war, in which the 
armies of Great Britain and her Allies had given 
independence to Spain and Portugal, and had defeated 
in nineteen ** stricken fields" the bravest troops and most 
experienced generals in Europe. 

Major-General Sir John Byng publicly thanked the 
2nd Battalion 66th, for its admirable and gallant 
behaviour, during the time it served under his command. 
The Prince Eegent accorded the battalion his permission 
to emblazon on its colours the words, ** Peninsula," 
"Dourp," **Talavera," Albuhera," "Vittoria," *<Nivelle," 
"Nive," and **Orthes." 

During its tour of service in the Peninsula, from the 
6th April, 1809, to 6th July, 1814, the battalion lost 
647 officers and men on the field of battle and by 

On the 6th July, 1814, the 2nd Battalion, 66th, 
embarked at Pouillac near Bordeaux, and sailed for the 
Cove of Cork, where it landed on the 15th. 

The battalion was quartered in the United Kingdom 
until the 2nd Janustry, 1816, when it sailed for St. Helena, 
under command of Lieutenant-Golonel Dodgin. 

Early in July, 1817, the 1st battaHon arrived at St. 
Helena from Bengal, and the two battalions were then 

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Cl^apter 8. 

1817-1827.>~Death and funeral of Napoleon Bonaparte— The 66th 
leave St. Helena — Complimentary order— Home services — *' Penin- 
sular Honours " granted — Embark for Canada. 

||HE 66th remained in the island of St. Helena 
until the death of the ex-Emperor, Napoleon 
Bonaparte. It was the 6th May, 1821, 
towards 6 p.m., when the illustrious exile, 
who had been lingering in a delirious stupor 
for some days, pronounced the words, " Tete d*a/nrUe,*' 
and then, with a last sigh, passed for ever from his 
dreams of warfare. 

On the following day, M. Antommarchi, assisted by 
Assistant-Surgeon Henry, 66th regiment, and four other 
medical officers, made a post mortem examination of the 
body, in the presence of Counts Bertrand and Montholon, 
and several British officers. 

The body of the Emperor, clad in his favourite uniform 
of the Chasseurs of the Guard, lay in state during the 
7th, and the officers ai;id men of the garrison filed past 
the couch ; each officer pausing to press respectfully the 
cold han4 of the dead man, who, with all his faults, had 
been heart and soul a soldier. 

On the 8th the members of the late Emperor's house- 
hold. Sir Hudson Lowe, and the military and civil 

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79 ^ 

authorities of the island attended the funeral. The 
road from Longwood being impassable for carriages, 
Napoleon was borne to his totnb (beneath a weeping 
willow in Slane's Valley) by a party of the Grenadier 
Company of the 66th; the pall that covered the coffin 
being the military cloak that Napoleon wore at the 
battle of Marengo. The flagship lying off James Town 
fired minute guns, while the priest, Vignali, read the 
service of his church ; the coffin was then lowered into 
the grave amidst a discharge of three volleys from 
fifteen cannon, and a huge stone was placed to mark 
the spot where reposed the remains of one who needs 
no epitaph. 

On the 26th May, 1821, the Grenadier and Light 
Companies, with the band, under command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Nicol, embarked in the Camel store-ship and 
sailed for England ; Colonel Nicol had under his charge 
Counts Bertrand and Montholon, and several members 
of the suite of the late Emperor. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Lascelles and the head-quarters sailed a fortnight later 
in H.M. Store-ship Abundance; and the remaining 
companies were sent home as opportimities occurred. 
The day before the Camel sailed from James Town, 
Lieutenant-General Sir Hudson Lowe, Governor of St. 
Helena, published a general order (dated 23rd May, 1821), 
highly compUmentary to the 66th, from which we give 
the following extracts : — 

** The 66th regiment ^1 commence its embarkation 
after muster to-morrow. The regiment being on the 
point of departing, the Lieutenant-General Command- 
ing desires to express his sense of the services they 

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80 THE 66th begiment. 

have performed during the time they have been under 
his command. They have had the Jongest share of, 
and for a considerable time the execution almost solely, 
of the most important . part of the public duty. . . 
The Lieutenant-General Commanding begs Lieutenant- 
Colonel Nicol will himself accept, and convey to the 
ofl&cers and men of the regiment, his best thanks for 
the very correct and attentive manner in which the 
duty was always performed by them. . . The 2nd 
battalion of the 66th regiment having arrived here in 
the first instance under command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Dodgin, and that ofl&cer having retained command of 
the 2nd battalion when incorporated into one, for a 
long period subsequently, the Lieutenant-General 
desires that Colonel Nicol will assure him of the 
high sense entertained of his services during the 
above time. The Lieutenant-General Commanding 
. desires Colonel Nicol will also express to Assistant- 
Surgeon Henry the high sense entertained of his very 
, meritorious services in this island." 

The 66th arrived in England in August, 1821, and was 
stationed at various towns until the end of July, 1822, 
when it proceeded to Edinburgh; and one company, 
under command of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Dimbar, 
was sent to Stirling Castle, and had the honour of doing 
duty to His Majesty George IV, during his sojourn in 

On the 21st February, 1823 — ^the head-quarters being 
then quartered at Sunderland — the following letter was 
received by the commanding ofGicer and pubHshed in 
orders: — 

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'* Horse Guards, 14th February, 1823. 

**I have the honour to acquaint you, by the 
direction of H.E.H. the Commander-in-Chief, that 
his Majesty has been pleased to approve of the 66th 
bearing on their colours and appointments, in addition 
to any other badges or devices which may have here- 
to-fore been granted to the regiment, the words — 
*Talavera,* ' Albuhera,* * Vittoria,* 'Pyrenees,' *Nivelle,' 
* Nive,' * Qrthes,* in commemoration of the distinguished 
conduct of the late 2nd battaHon at the battle of 
Talavera on the 27th and 28th July, 1809 ; at Albuhera 
on the 16th May, 1811 ; at Vittoria on the 21st Jime, 
1813; in the Pyrenees, in July, 1818; in the passage 
of the Nive on the 9th, 10th, and 11th December, 
1818 ; and at Qrthes on the 27th February, 1814. 
** I have, &c., 
*^ (Signed) **Henby Torbens, 

On the 24th March, 1823, the 66th sailed from Liverpool 
for Ireland, and reached Dublin on the 26th. The 66th 
was stationed in Ireland until the summer of 1827, when 
it was again ordered on foreign service. On the 1st 
June, 1827, the 1st Division of the 66th embarked at 
the Cove of Cork on board the Arab transport, under 
command of Major Baird, and sailed for Canada on the 
10th. The/ head-quarters, under Colonel Nicol, sailed in 
H.M.S. Borrmey on the 20th June. The two vessels 
arrived at Quebec on the 21st July and the 18th August 

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Cj^aptjer 9. 

1827-1865.— Services in Canada—The Papineau RebelKon— Affair of 
St. Charles— Suppresedon of the KebeUion— The 66th return to 
England^-Embark for Gibraltar — Sent to the West Indies — 
Severe outbreak of Yellow Fever — Canada — ^Presentation of New 
Colours at Quebec — Return to England and Embark for India- 
Grenadier and Light Companies abolished — Service in India — 
Embark for EngUmd — ^The Voyage Home. 

Ij EOM August, 1827, to November, 1837, the 
66th was stationed in different cities and 
^15^ towns in the Dominion of Canada; and 
'^^^ during the greater part of that long period 
^^^ the regiment was cut up intp detachments. 
In the aiitumn of 1837 the ''Papineau" rebellion 
broke out at Montreal, and on the 25th November of 
that year a detachment of the 66th, commanded by 
Lieutenant Johnston, consisti^g of two subalterns and 
sixty non-commissioned ofl&cers and privates, formed 
part of a force under confunand of Colonel George 
Augustus Wetherall, which attacked the rebels at St. 
Charles. In this affair the 66th had one private (WiUiam 
Atkins) killed, and four privates wounded; Lieutenant 
Johnston was mentioned in General Orders for his 
gallantry on this occasion. 

During the winter of 1837-8 four companies of the regi- 
ment were employed in active service on the river 

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In the spring of 1838 the insurgent leaders, Louert 
and Matthews, were captured and hanged as traitors, 
aind the rebellion was thought to be crushed; but* in 
the following November there was a fresh rising in 
Beauharnois, and the rebel forces concentrated at 
Napiersville. After a few sharp skirmishes — ^in which 
the 66th took some parfe — ^the insurgents laid down their 
arms; and Sir John Golbome, in despatches dated 
November 17th, 1838, informed the Home Government 
that the insurrection was at an end. 

In October, 1840, after thirteen-and-a-half years* 
service in the Dominion; the 66th sailed for England 
in the transports Samphire and Athol, and disembarked at 
Gosport on the 3rd December. 

From Gosport the regiment was moved to Portsmouth, 
and from thence to Winchester, in which city it was 
stationed until November, 1841. 

On the 15th, 16th, and 17th November, the 66th left 
Winchester for Manchester, where it remamed until the 
spring of 1842, when it was ordered to Glasgow ; one 
company proceeding on detachment to the Isle of Man. 

On the 13th September, 1842, the "Berkshires" 
furnished a guard of honour to Her Majesty at Falkirk. 
This guard consisted of two companies under command 
of Major W. L. Dames, who on completion of the duty 
was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. 

From Glasgow the 66th moved to Edinburgh, and 

while stationed in Edinburgh Castle the old flint-locks 

were given into store, and the new pattern percussion 

muskets served out to the men. 

In September, 1843, the 66th embarked for Ireland, 

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84 THE 66th begiment. 

and the following complimentary order was issued by 
Major-General Sir Neil Douglas, K.O.B* 

<* Edinburgh, 12th September, 1843. Major-General 
Sir Neil Douglas cannot allow th6 66th regiment to 
leave the district under his command, without express- 
ing his sense of the meritorious conduct of the corps, 
which in discipline and every other soldier-like quality, 
has earned his entire approbation. ... In parting 
with this regiment, the Major-General feels that he 
is parting with old friends ; and he requests that they 
will accept his best and most sincere regard^ for their, 
future welfare and prosperity." 

After four years* home service, the regiment, under 
conmiand of Lieutenant-Colonel Johnston, sailed from 
the Cove of Cork in H.M.S. Besistance for Gibraltar, 
and landing there on the 22nd of July, 1845, occupied 
the South Barracks. About this period the Horse Guards 
authorities issued orders that the Grenadiers of line 
battalions should discontinue their bearskin caps. 

The 66th remained at the "Eock" until the 25th of 
January, 1848, when it embarked on board the freight 
ship Herefordshire, and sailed for the West Indies. 
The Herefordshire anchored in Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, 
on the 22nd of February, and the dis-embarkation took 
place next day. The Grenadier and D. Companies did 
not land at Carhsle Bay, but were transhipped to the 
Princess Royal for passage to Demerara, under command 
of Captain Turner. 

The following garrison order was issued by General 
Sir Eobert Wilson, K.C.B., on the departure of the 66th 
from Gibraltar. 

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** Gibraltar, January 24tli, 1848. The 66th regiment 
being under orders to embark for Barbadoes to-morrow 
morning at eight o'clock, the General Commanding has 
much satisfaction in being enabled to put on the 
records of the garrison, his fullest commendation of 
this corps for its progressive military efl&ciency, 
attentive execution of its duties, zealous labour at the 
public works, and general propriety of conduct, 
which he feels confident will be maintained." 
Extract from garrison orders, Gibraltar, January 25th, 

"Her Majesty's 66th re^ment embarked this 
morning in the presence of the General Commanding, 
and his Excellency has the further satisfaction to 
notice the exemplary appearance of the corps under 
arms on this occasion ; there could not be altogether a 
more creditable and soldier-like parade." 
Shortly after the arrival of the 66th in the Island of 
Barbadoes a severe epidemic of yellow fever broke out, 
and the regiment suffered terribly. 

In September, October, November, and December, 
1848, six ofl&cers and fifty non-comnlissioned officers and 
men became victims of that fearful malady. The names 
of the officers were : — Lieutenant H. K. Holms, 
September 11th; Lieutenant W. E. Pyne, October 26th; 
and Captain F. W. Astley, November 13th. Paymaster 
K. T. Boss, Lieutenant and Adjutant J. H. Boss, Mrs. 
and Miss Boss (father, son, mother, and daughter) died 
respectively on November 24th, 25th, and 27th. Quarter- 
master Matthew Biley died on the 17th December; a 
few days before his death he was gazetted Adjutant, 

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86 THE 66th begihent. 

vice Lieutenant Boss, but he did not live to hear of his 

During the remainder of their services in Barbadoes 
the 66th lost two more ofl&cers (Captains Turner and 
Birch) and thirty-six non-commissioned officers and men 
by yellow fever. 

On the 12th of July, 1860, Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. 
Grubbe assumed command of the regiment, having 
exchanged from the reserve battalion 76th Foot, with 
Colonel Johnston. 

On the 26th of May, 1851, the 66th sailed for Canada 
in the Jcma freight ship, and on landing at Quebec (June 
24th) occupied the Jesuit Barracks. 

New colours were issued to the regiment in July, 1861, 
and handed over on parade by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Grubbe, without the usual ceremony of consecration 
being performed; the old colours were sent home to the 
depdt at Guernsey. 

The 66th remained in Canada until September, 1864, 
when it embarked for England, and landed at Portsmouth 
on the 24th October. From Portsmouth the regiment 
proceeded to Preston, Lancashire, where the dep6t com- 
panies, under Captain Benson, had already arrived. On 
the 1st November, two new companies (**K" and **M**) 
were added to the strength of the regiment. 

On the 23rd November, 1854, the service companies, 
under command of Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. Grubbe, 
left Preston, were billeted one night at Beading, arrived 
at Southampton on the 24th, and there embarked 
for Gibraltar on board the steamer Tamar. A four-com- 
pany dep6t was left at Preston, under command of Brevet 

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lieutenant-Colonel Sir William Gordon, Bart. The 
66tli landed at Gibraltar on the 30th November. 

On the 9th January, 1855, Colonel Grubbe retired on 
half-pay, and Sir William Gordon succeeded him in 
command of the regiment. In June of the same year 
Gordon exchanged to the 3rd West India Regiment with 
Lieutenant-Colonel Law. The 66th was stationed at 
Gibraltar until June, 1856, when it returned to England, 
and went into quarters in Plymouth Citadel. In March, 
1857, the regiment was moved to the North Camp 
Aldershot, and there remained until the following 
August, when it proceeded to Portsmouth and embarked 
(August 29th) on board the s.s. Qioeen of the South, for 
passage to India, Colonel C. E. Law being in command. 
After a voyage of one hundred and six days' duration, 
the regiment arrived at Cananore on the 13th December, 
1857, and went into quarters in the European Barracks. 

On the 26th January, 1858, an order was issued that the 
flank companies should no longer bear the designations 
** Grenadiers" and "Light," and that in future the com- 
panies of all line battalions should be ''numbered" 
instead of "lettered." This order created universal 
dissatisfaction throughout the service, for the "Flankers" 
had always been couQidered the smartest men of a regi- 
ment, and highly prized their distinctions, titles, and 

The 66th remained at Cananore until the commence- 
ment of the year 1863. While at that station it was 
repeatedly praised by the Brigadier commanding the 
provinces of Malabar and Canara, at the half-yearly 
inspections, and gained the enviable reputation of being 

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88 THE 66th begiment. 

a smart, well-disciplined, well-educated corps. From 
Cananore the regiment moved to Bangalore, where it 
was stationed for two years. 

On the 7th March, 1865, the head-quarters and right 
wing of the 66th, left Bangalore for Madras, and there 
embarked in the Tybv/mia for passage to England; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Benson was in command. The 
Tybunvia sailed round the Cape, and touched at St. 
Helena on the 6th May, the anniversary of Bonaparte's 
death ; the ofl&cers of the regiment visited the tomb to 
which the remains of the great warrior had been borne 
forty-four years before by the Grenadiers of the 66th. 

The left wing of the regiment, under Major C. W. 
Aylmer, sailed from Madras on the 11th March, 1865, 
in the ship Merchantman* The Tybumia anchored off 
Falmouth on the 24:th June, and the right wing went 
into quarters in the Citadel, Plymouth ; the Merchantman 
arrived four days later, and the left wing occupied the 
Baglan Barracks at Devonport. 

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Cj^aijft^r 10- 

1870-1879.— Embark for India — Presentation of New Ooloure by Lord 
Northbrook — Old Colours deposited in St. Mary's Church, 
treading — Camp of Exercise at Chinchured — Movements of the 
Depdt up to January, 1878. 

i Pl^J "^"^ ^^*^ remained at home until the spring 
^W^^ of 1870, and was stationed at Plymouth, 

^(?jlt!^ Aldershot, the Channel Islands, and in 
^^^ Ireland. On the 17th February, 1870, 
*nr the left wing, under command of Major 
Galbraith, embarked in the troop-ship Serapis, and sailed 
for India. Oil the 24:th February, the headquarters and 
right wing, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel George 
Vinpent Watson, left the Curragh Camp for Queenstown, 
and there embarked in the troop-ship Crocodile. 

A dep6t, commanded by Captain J. T. Eeady, was 
formed, proceeded to Portsmouth, and was attached to 
the 66th regiment. 

On arrival in India, the 66th was stationed at Kurraohee, 
in the Sind district. On the 11th November, 1872, the 
regiment paraded at Kurrachee for the presentation of 
mew colours by H.E. the Eight Honorable Lord North- 
brook, Governor-General of India. His excellency was 
received with a royal salute, and the old colours having 
been **jtrooped/* the new colours were first consecrated, 

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90 THE 66th regiment. 

and then handed over to the regiment by the Viceroy, 
who addressed the officers and men as follows :~ 

** Colonel Watson, officers, non-commissioned officers, 
and men of the 66th Berkshire regiment ; there is no 
duty that I could be called upon to perform, as the 
representative of her most gracious Majesty the Queen, 
which affords me greater honour or greater pleasure than 
this which I have to perform to-day, that of presenting 
you with new colours. 

"From your regimental records I find that the 
regiment has been embodied more than a hundred 
years, and that during that time it has seen a greater 
proportion of foreign service, in all quarters of the 
globe, than has fallen to the lot of the majority of the 
regiments in the British army. 

*' We first find it on service in the West Indies, and, 
on its return home after being divided into two 
battalions, the 2nd battalion took a most distinguished 
part in the glorious operations in the Peninsula, during 
the years 1809 to 1814. It was prominent for its 
gallantry at the passage of the Douro ; at Albuhera, 
which was one of the most fiercely contested battles 
in the Peninsula, it suffered the great loss of 17 officers 
and 310 rank and file, killed, wounded, and missing ; 
and at Talavera it also lost heavily. In the year 1813 
it was engaged and distinguished itself at the battle 
of Yittoria, in the passes of the Boncesvalles, at 
Nivelle, Nive, and Orthes ; and the proud distinctions 
you carry on your colours commemorate your achieve- 
ments on those great historic events. The 1st 
battalion also distinguished itself in this country. 

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taking a prominent part in the successful expedition 
against Nepaul. 

"It is not alone on the field of battle that regiments 
of the British army suffer severe losses. There are 
times when a regiment is obliged for the public service 
to be quartered in deadly climates, and where ofl&cers 
and men are liable to be struck down by the fell hand 
of disease. Your regiment has upon two occasions 
suffered severely from this cause, and so long ago a& 
the end of the last century, when, at St. Domingo, no 
less than 15 officers and 600 men died from the effecta 
of the unhealthy climate in the short space of twelve 
months ; and again, in later times, in the year 1848, at 
Barbadoes, the regiment sustained severe loss from 

**I am exceed,ingly glad to hear from Colonel 
Watson, that the regiment has, during the whole of 
its service, been distinguished for its good conduct and 
discipline. The steadiness and efficiency of the 
regiment have merited the approval of General 
Addisoiv in the reports I have seen, and it has also 
on several occasions been favourably noticed by 
H.E.H. the Field-Marshal Oommanding-in-Ohief. 
These maorks of approval are most creditable to the 
regiment, as discipline and good conduct are especially 
necessary in a country like India, where it^is the duty 
of every Englishman by his example and good 
behaviour to produce a favourable impression on. the 
minds of the natives, and so gain respect and honour 
for the British name. It is, I say, a great pubhc 
advantage that a distinguished regiment, such as yours^ 

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92 THE 66th begiment. 

should gain the approval of the superior authorities ; 
and it must be great satisfaction to Cblonel Watson, 
who so worthily conunands the regiment, and who alone 
of the officers was present on the last occasion when 
colours were given, to find that his exertions of many 
years have their reward. 

" Colonel Watson, officers, non-commissioned officers, 
and men, this opportunity of bringing back to your 
recollection the stirring events of past years should 
not be thrown away and leave no trace behind. The 
officers and men of this regiment, who died in war and 
from disease in the service of their country, lie in their 
quiet graves in distant parts of the world, but their 
memories remain with you, and such is the admirable 
constitution of the regimental system of the British 
army, that the youngest recruit' can take a pride in 
the glorious victories of his regiment in past times; 
but while he feels that pride he also has a duty to 
perform, and there is not a man in the regiment, who 
cannot by self-sacrifice and prompt obedience to 
command — ^which is the root of all discipline, and 
which distinguishes the British army — help to main- 
tain the honour of the corps to which he belongs. 

'* By the blessing of God, peace prevails throughout 
the British Empire, and in the domains of her Majesty 
in this country, not a breath of war or disturbance 
even to this remote portion whose bounds I see before 
me. But I am sure of this, that should the Queen 
Tequire the services of the 66th — as expressed in that 
beautiful prayer which you have just heard, that 'for 
just and righteous hands to , defend the right ancL 



punish the wrong-doer' — the colours which, as her 
Majesty's representative, I have now presented to 
you, will be borne in the front of victory. I am satisfied 
that they could not be confided to more loyal hearts 
or braver arms than those of the 66th Berkshire 

Colonel Watson replied in suitable terms, and the 
ceremony terminated. The old colours were retained in 
the regimental recreation room, but were subsequently 
sent home to the dep6t, and on the 27th February, 1877, 
were deposited in the church of St. Mary, Beading. On 
this .occasion the time-honoured flags were escorted by a 
party of ofi&cers and nien of the 66th depot, and the 
band of the Eoyal Berks Militia, and a strong guard of 
honour of the Berkshire Volunteers took part in the 
ceremony of handing them over to the Vicar and Church- 
wardens of St. Mary. 

The 66th left Kurrachee in November, 1873, and 
joined the camp of exercise at Chinchured. The 
mancBuvres commenced on the 8th December, and 
terminated on the 23rd, when the camp was broken up. 
The 66th was especially noticed by the Commander-in- 
Chief and his personal staff for its excellent drilling 
and general appearance during the mancBuvres. 

On the 29th December, 1873, the 66th commenced its 
march to Belgaum, where it arrived on the 22nd January, 
1874. In July, 1875, Colonel Watson exchanged to the 
24:th Foot with Colonel F. d'Epinay Barclay. From 
Belgaum the regiment moved to Poonah (February, 
1876) and took up its quarters at the Ghoorpoorie 

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94 THE 66th begiment. 

In March, 1876, Captain Murphy, 66th Foot, was 
appointed Adjutant of the Eoyal Berks Militia, and 
Captain John Quarry (late Ceylon Eifles) was transferred 
to the regiment from the 28th Foot, vice Murphy. 

The headquarters of the 66th moved to Ahmednuggar 
in November, 1876, and the left half-battalion under 
Major Galbraith was ordered to Bombay. The head- 
quarters, under Lieutenant-Colonel d'Epinay Barclay^ 
proceeded to Bombay in January, 1878. On the 
8th December, 1878, the companies at Bombay were 
inspected by lieutenant-General Warre, C.B. (Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army) who expressed 
his satisfaction and congratulated the 66th on its chance 
of active service in Afghanistan. On the 7th of 
December lieutenant-Colonel Galbraith, with four 
companies, embarked in the ship Scotland for Eurrachee, 
to relieve the 83rd, ordered on service. 

Movements op the Dep6t 66th Foot, fbom 
Febbuabt, 1870, TO Januabt, 1878. 

On the 26th February, 1870, embarked from Ports, 
mouth under Captai,n J. T. Eeady. Moved from 
Portsmouth to Winchester, and from thence to Aldershot 
in May and June, 1870; returned to Winchester in 
September, 1871. From the first of July, 1874, to the 
28th of February, 1875, the depdt companies were 
attached to the 1st battalion 23rd Fusiliers. On the 
1st of March, 1875, the depdt left Aldershot for Parkhurst, 
and was attached to the 49th, Princess Charlotte of 
Wales* (Hertfordshire) regiment, with which corps the 

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66th had been afiUiated, under Mr. Gardwell's ** linked 
battahoa" system, 1876 — The Lords Gommissioiiers of 
H.M. Treasury awarded a sum of £10 to Private James 
Drury, 66th regiment, in recognition of his exemplary 
conduct at a fire which occurred at the Boyal Victoria 
Hospital, Netley, on the 9th of April, 1876. 

On the 25th of January, 1878, the dep6ts of the 4:9th 
and 66th regiments proceeded to Beading and oQCupied 
the new bajracks built for the "41st Brigade Depot." 


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n 11 • 

1879-1880. — ^Arrival at Kurrachee — Inspected by Brigadier Brice — 
Death of Lieutenant Smallpiece — Colonel Barclay's Farewell 
Order — Colonel Galbraith succeeds to the Command of the 
66th — Ordered to Afghanistan on Active Service — Movements 
of Detachments— Ayoub Khan's Advance — Mutiny of the 
Wall's troops — Girishk — Return to Kushki Nakud. 

^N New Year's Day, 1879, the 66th regiment 
arrived at Kurrachee, and three companies 
(D, F, and G) under command of Captain 
John Quarry proceeded by train to Hydrabad. 
The regiment was inspected by Brigadier- 
General Brice, commanding the Sind District 
on the 11th and 12th, and that ofi&cer expressed his 
satisfaction in the following: — 

"Colonel Barclay, I have just completed a very 
minute inspection of ^your regiment, and the result is 
most satisfactory, and bears out what I have always 
heard of the high character of the 66th. On parade the 
men were both steady under arms, and well turned 
out; especially, when it is taken into consideration, 
that the equipment is new, and the straps not yet set. 
In the barracks everything was very clean, and the 
kits exceptionally good and well laid out. The 
conduct of the regiment has been very good. . . • 

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COLONEL bakclat's fabewell oedbr. 97 

I trust, G6th, that you will continue your present good 
behaviour, and thus sustain the high character I have 
always heard of you/' 

On the 29th April, the instructor of musketry, 
Lieutenant H. H. Smallpiece, died, and his death was 
thus announced in Eegimental Orders : — 

" It is with deep regret that the Lieutenant-Colonel 
Commanding has to notify the death of Lieutenant 
H. H. Smallpiece, the instructor-of-musketry to the 
battalion; and he feels sure that his loss will be 
sincerely felt by all with whom he has served, during 
the thirteen years he has been in the 66th: six of 
which have been in the capacity of musketry-instructor. 
The Lieutenant-Colonel cannot olnit this occasion of 
recording his high sense of the zealous manner in 
which Lieutenant Smallpiece performed his duties; 
and fully appreciates the good results of his services 
to the regiment during his tenure of ofi&ce on the 
regimental staff." 

Lieutenant-Colonel T. 0. D. B. Barclay left Kurrachee 
en route to England on the 10th November, 1879, on 
completion of his five years' command. The following 
address was published in Regimental Orders, by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Barclay on his quitting the battalion: — 
'* In relinquishing the command of the battalion, the 
Lieutenant-Colonel wishes to thank all the officers for 
, the ready support he has at all times received from 
them, and to place on record his opinion as to the 
manner in which all ranks have performed their 
^ respective duties. He especially thanks the Adjutant 
(Captain Roberts) for the pains he has taken with the 

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98 THE 66th begiment. 

general insfcruction of the non-commissioned ofl&cers, 
particularly the younger ones; and he has kept this 
most essential branch of the battalion in a very 
efficient state. His thanks are due to Quartermaster 
Jones for his unremitting attention to the dutiies of 
that important branch of the regimental staff; also 
to the officiating Paymaster (Major Eeady) for the 
satisfactory manner in which he has conducted the 
duties of that office. Amongst the non-commissioned 
officers, he desires to record the very high opinion he 
holds of Sergeant-Major Guppage and Quartermaster- 
Sergeant Hollyer,* both young non-commissioned 
officers of about eleven years* service, and who have 
gained their high positions through deserving good 
conduct and a thorough knowledge of their respective 
duties. The Lieutenant-Colonel sincerely wishes 
further, promotion may be awaiting them. The 
general conduct of the battalion affords him the 
greatest satisfaction, and he feels sure that the 66th 
Berkshire regiment will ever maintain that high state 
of discipline he found it on joining four years ago, and 
in which he believes he now leaves it." 
Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel J. Galbraith assumed com- 
mand of the regiment on the 16th of November, 1879. 

The regiment was placed under orders for service in 
South Afghanistan, and proceeded to Sibi en route to 
Kandahar, as follows: — ^The' detachment from Hydrabad 
(consisting of 15 officers, 12 sergeants, 12 corporals, 3 
drummers, and 219 privates) under the command of Major 

* Now Lieutenant Hollyer ; QoartermaBter 3rd (Militia) Battalion 
Koyal Berks. 

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C. F. Oliver, left that station on the 9th February, 1880, 
by rail, arriving at Sibi on the 11th February, to await 
the arrival of the head-quarters. The head-quarters, 
under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel J. Galbraith 
(consisting of 15 ofl&cers, 26 sergeants, 21 corporals, 9 
drummers, 388 privates) left Kurrachee by rail on the 
10th, arriving at Sibi on the morning of the 13th 
February, 1880. The regiment (with the exception of 
the D company) under the command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel J. Galbraith, marched from Sibi, en route to 
Kandahar, via Quetta, arriving at its destination on the 
25th of March, 1880. 

D company, which was left as an escort for C-2 Boyal 
Artillery, was subsequently selected for the sole charge 
from Sibi of a battery of smooth-bore guns, a present 
from the Government of India to Sirdar Shere Ali Khan, 
Governor of Kandahar. The guns having been con- 
ducted over the Kojak Pass without mishap were handed 
over to Sirdar Shere Ali Khan's men at Chaman. For 
this service Captain Mac Math and his company received 
by telegrajn the thanks of Lieutenant-General Sir Donald 
Stewart, commanding Kandahar field forces. 

The Lidian depot, consisting of the women and children 
and sickly men, under the command of Lieutenant A. J. 
Price (instructor-of-musketry) was located at Kurrachee 
on the departure of the head-quarters. 

A detachment, consisting of G and H companies, 

under the command of Captain J. Quarry, was sent to 

the citadel of Kandahar on the 29th March, 1880. A 

detachment, consisting of A and E companies, under 

the command of Captain McKinnon, left Kandahar, en 


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100 THE 66th -REGIMENT. 

route for Khelat-i-Ghilzai on the 6th April in relief of two 
companies of the 59th Foot. A draft arrived at Kurrachee 
on the 15th February, 1880, from England, and left on 
the 2nd March, en route to Kandahar, to join the service 
companies arriving at the latter station — one detach- 
ment on the 7th, the other on the 10th April, 1880. 

Early in July, 1880, Wali Shere Ali — who was encamped 
at Girishk — reported that Sirdar Mahomed Ayoub Khan, 
Governor of Herat, was marching on Kandahar at the 
head of a powerful army. In consequence of this report 
Brigadier-General Burrowes was ordered to proceed at 
once to Girishk to check Ayoub's advance, and accord- 
ingly he left Kandahar on the 5th July, with the 2nd 
infantry brigade, two regiments of native cavalry, and 
a battery of horse-artillery. The head-quarters and 
B, C, D, F, G and H, companies of the 66th, under 
conmiand of lieutenant-Colonel Galbraith, formed part 
of Burrowes' force. 

Burrowes marched as far as Kokeran on the 5th, 
where he found supplies scarce, but excellent water. 
At 6 a.m. on the following day, tents were struck, and 
the column pushed on towards the Argandab Biver, and 
halted at Ashoulkhan, where there was an abundance of 
fruit and water. Atta Karez was the next halting place, 
and on the 8th the column encamped at Kushki Nakud. 
From thence it proceeded to Mez Karez (a deserted 
town) and on the 10th arrived at the Helmund near to 
Girishk, which was on the opposite side of that river. 

The Helmund is some thirty leagues from Kandahar. 

On the 14:th, Burrowes received intelligence that the 
Wah's troops had mutinied, whereupon he marched- 

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against them with five companies of the 66th, three 
companies 80th native infantry, 400 eavabry, and the 
horse-artillery ; the remainder of the column he left to 
guard the cajnp. 

The mutineers numbered between four and five thousand 
men and had with them the smooth-bore battery, which 
the Indian Government had presented to the Wall, 
Towards 10 a.m. they opened fire on Burrowes' force, 
but the horse-artillery returned the fire with jsuch good 
effect that in about an hour's time the mutineers had had 
enough of it, and retired from their position, leaving two 
guns behind them. 

^he cavalry and infantry pursued them, and after 
killing a considerable mmaber, took the other four guns. 

Burrowes returned tp his camp about 4 p.m., with 
the captured guns escorted by a party of the 66th. In 
this affair the regiment had four men wounded. 

On the 16th July, in consequence of the scarcity of 
supplies in the vicinity of the Helmund, Burrowes 
returned to Kushki Nakud, where he encamped on the 
18th. Here a telegram was received from his Excellency 
the Commander-in-Chief thanking the troops for their 
gallant behaviouit and the capture of the Wali's guns. 

On the 20th one of the men wounded at Girishk died. 

On the 21st the column went into laager at Kushki 
Nakud, where there was an enclosure in which the 
field-hospital and commissariat stores were placed. 

At Kushki Nakud Burrowes* force was strengthened 
by a troop of the 3rd Sind horse ; and at the same time 
horses were provided for the captured battery, which 
was then manned by a detachment of the 66th. 

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Cj^aphr 12, 

MAIWAND — Lieutenant O'Donnel'd Account of the Action — Extracts 
from Notes by Major Ready, Commanding the Baggage-guard — 
List of Officers, N.C. Officers and Privates who were killed — 
General Primrose*s Letter to the Commander-in-Chief in India. 

^N the 27th of July, the brigade marched to 
Maiwand, where it attacked the force of 
Ayoub Khan, which numbered about 25,000 
men. The following accountof this celebrated 
action is taken from a letter written by Lieu- 
tenant O'Donnell, 66th regiment : — 
"The first whispers of the disaster reached us at 
Eelat on the 2nd of August. It was a native rumour, 
and spoke of annihilation, giving circumstantial details. 
Ayoub was also said to have detached a force to operate 
against us. Though scarcely able to credit the terrible 
news of the disaster, we made every preparation for 
defence, and sent out strong foraging parties through 
the neighbouring country. 

" But our scepticism of the news was strengthened 
by finding the people more than usually quiet and 
willing to sell their grain. So passed ten days of doubt 
and anxiety ; our belief that something must be wrong 
being gradually established by the absence of all news 
from Kandahar, to which we had despatched several 

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messengers. At last on the 12th, one of them returned 
with letters, and we learned the whole sad truth, so 
far as our losses were concerned. I feel pretty clear 
now as to how the whole thing happened ; so I may 
as well tell you of it here. 

'*0n the 26th of July, Colonel St. John informed 
General Burrowes, who was encamped with his force 
at Kushk-i-Nakud, that a Ghazi advanced-guard of 
Ayoub's army had got to Maiwand, some ten miles to 
the north. The next morning Burrowes marched off 
his force, with bands playing, and everyone rejoiced 
at the thought of having to turn the Ghazis out of the 
Maiwand Fort. He had an effective fighting force, 
numbering about as follows: — ^E-B. Boyal Horse 
Artillery, 6 guns, about 150 men; 6 smooth-bores, 
taken from the Wall's mutineers, supplied with horses 
and drivers by the E-B., and worked by trained men 
of the 66th ; 6 companies of the 66th regitnent, about 
490 men; 1st Bombay Grenadiers N.I., about 550 
men; 30th Bombay NJ. (Jacob's Eifles) about 550; 
Sid Bombay Light Cavalry, about 300 sabres; 3rd 
Sind Horse, minus one squadron about 200 sabres; 
total 1,600 infantry, 500 cavalry, and 12 guns. This 
included men in hospital, about 3 per cent. 

"This force, when nearing the village of Maiwand, 
about ten a.m., came upon — ^not a few hundred Ghazis, 
but — the whole of Ayoub*s a/rmy, also on the march, and 
stretching for miles across the plain — Ahorse and foot — 
as far as eye could reach. The bands stopped playing, 
and the General formed line of battle, having, I believe 
orders to stop Ayoub at all hazards. 

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104 THE 66th begiment. 

**The fight began by two guns of the B brigade, 
under McLaine, dashing away to the left front and 
opening fire on Ayoub's people. Burrowes then 
advanced, leaving behind, unreconnoitered, a village 
with gardens, in front of which ran a deep nullah or 
water course, an admirable defensive position. 

" Advancing a few hundred yards into the open, but 
undulating, plain, he halted about 150 yards in rear of 
another nullah, and prepared for action. Holding in 
support — and that only for a short time — two com- 
panies of Jacob's Bifies, he formed the remainder of his 
infantry into one solitary two-deep line, with the guns 
at intervals, five companies of the 66th on the right, 
then the Jacob's Bifles, and the Ist Grenadiers on the 
left. Quarry's company (G) was on baggage-guard; 
the cavalry was massed in columns in rear of the left, 
in a perfectly exposed position. The baggage was 
hidden from fire as much as possible in the deep nullah 
which had been left behind. Ayoub kept the mass of 
his force concealed from view behind some rising 
ground, while his cavalry, spreading out in clouds on 
both flanks, began gradually to over-lap our line. For 
half-an-hour the fire from our artillery was not replied 
to ; then all at once, from five different points, thirty- 
six guns — six pf them breech-loading Armstrong's — 
opened upon our line, and never ceased firing till the 
end of the battle. Our men were lying down, the 
marksmen being out a few paces to the front trying to 
pick off the enemy's gunners. Our guns meanwhilQ 
blazed away as fast as they could, but with only 
twelve against thirty-six it was an unequal fight. 

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This kind of work lasted till about one o'clock. 

" In the meantime, no sooner had our people become 
engaged than it became evident that the village, which 
had been left in the rear of our right, was occupied by 
hostile villagers who opened fire against the back of 
our line, and Quarry had to detach half his company 
to act against them. This half -company was engaged 
in and near the gardens the greater part of the day ; 
with the other half-company Quarry guarded the 
baggage against the enemy's cavalry, who hung in 
heavy clouds about our left flank, but contented 
themselves with threatening. 

** All this time our cavalry was sitting idle under a 
heavy artillery fire, which was knocking over some 
men and many horses. In fact they were given over 
to the enemy to be pounded into demoralization. 

" Our artillery horses were also suffering severely, 
but in the infantry line very few casualties had 
occurred. It was not till half-past six o'clock that 
Ayoub made any move with his infantry. Then there 
was a great advance along the whole line; swarms of 
the white-coated Ghazis came on, followed by the 
regular regiments in red and blue, and to meet them 
the whole of our infantry was allowed to open fire. 
The 66th took to firing volleys by companies. McMath's 
company (D) was moved by him to a short distance in 
front of the line, where a fold of the ground gave 
good cover. 

** Among the Ghazis nearly every man seemed to be 
carrying a standard of some description. At the begin- 
ning of their advance, they made no rushes, but came 

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106 THE 66th begiment. 

quietly on a few paces at a time, then halting they 
would plant their flags in the ground, fire, and again 
move on ; but when they got nearer, and the volleys 
began to tell upon them, the slaughter was terrific ; in 
some places they would be seen to fall three deep, and 
always as they went down, those behind would quietly 
step over them and come on with their gleaming knives. 
All along our line a tremendous fire was kept up. 

"The men soon ran through their seventy rounds, 
and were working away on their reserve ammunition. 
The smooth-bore battery fired every round ; retired, 
replenished, and came into action again. 

'* McMath was voiceless from shouting the word of 
command, so he stood apart from his company and 
raised his sword as a signal when the volley was to be 

** One of Ayoub's regular regiments came up on the 
left, and exchanged volleys at a few hundred yards 
with the 1st Grenadiers, who sustained a roaring fire 
all the time. An attempt of the Ghazis to encircle 
our right was met by throwing back B and C companies, 
which, under Cullen and Eoberts, fijred some beautiful 
volleys; and two guns which the enemy rolled up to 
within a hundred-and-fiifty yards, to ply the 66th with 
grape, had several successive gun-detachments swept 
away by D company. So great was the effect of the 
fire in front of the line, that at last it seemed as if all 
the assailants had been cleared off the face of the earth ; 
and Major Blackwood, of the artillery, exclaimed to 
Peirse, who commanded our left company, *By Jove ! 
they are all gone.' But they had not.' Sending the 


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fire in front of the line too intense to advance straight 
up against it, the great mass of the Ghazis/ some of 
them carried up in rear of the horsemen, had incKned 
to the right and left, and entering the nullah, which 
crossed the ground in front of our line, spread them- 
selves along it,' and concentrated under cover for a 
rush at our centre. 

** Up to that time, (except Surgeon-Major Preston, 
who was wounded while tending the first man hit among 
the 66th,) not an officer had been touched. But when 
the enemy emerged from the nuUah, the only European 
officer with the two companies of Jacob's Eifles, 
between the guns and Peirse's company, was shot 
down. Then came the crash. As the Ghazis rushed on 
they were still met by the same steady volleys from our 
men — still by the heavy fire of the Grenadiers, and by 
case from the artillery. But Jacob's Bifles wavered, 
and when the enemy were within fifty yards the two 
companies broke and ran, not straight back, but 
behind the 66th — who were still standing firm — as if 
seeking for safety there. 

** Bushing wildly along our line and carrying con- 
fusion everywhere, they came full against the rear 
of Cullen's company, which was thrown back and 
broke its formation to pieces. 

"Into the gap they had left, the Ghazis rushed and 
captured the two guns before they could retire, only a 
few of the gunners cutting their way out. The Ghazis 
were then all round the line, both in front and rear, 
and the remainder of the native infantry, aiter 
attempting to form square, gave way and fell back in 

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108 THE 66th bbgimbnt. 

disorder. But the rear rank of F and H companies, 
66tK, were turned about by word of command, and 
kept up the fire on both sides; and in the other 
companies many of the men did th$ same of their 
own accord. 

**Then from somewhere or other the *Eetire* was 
sounded, but even after that, there is evidence that a 
portion at least of the regiment made a move, not 
away from but towards the. enemy. 

" However, the Colonel ordered those about him to 
retire to the gardens, and soon the whole regiment 
followed, ir^ confusion of course, and still mixed up 
with the Jacob's Eifles. The smooth-bore battery, 
again out of ammunition, had retired just before the 
line broke; and the four remaining guns of E-B. fell 
back past the gardens, in rear of Quarry's baggage 

''There remained the cavalry. At the moment of 
the smash Burrowes ordered Nuttall, the cavalry 
Brigadier, to charge across the front, but (as I believe 
Burrowes put in his despatch) General Nuttall foimd 
himseK unable to comply with this order, the fact 
being that the men could not be got to obey. Without 
a blow, the 500 sabres retired rapidly through Quarry's 
extended line. As the infantry made for the gardens 
the enemy followed them close, some of the Ghazis 
pressing round the flank, and reaching the enclosures 
even before our troops. Then the heavy losses began. 
The native infantry had become an unresisting mass : 
even the 1st Grenadiers who, before the panic spread, 
had fought so well. Among the Ghazis pressing on 

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their heels one would sometimes be seen to stretch 
out his arm, and drag a grenadier from the ranks, then 
with one hand he would knock off the man's turban, 
and with the other cut him down. The same game, 
when tried on with our 66th men, was a signal failure, 
and in the retreat to the gardens the enemy kept at such 
a respectful distance that our fellows had no need to 
use their bayonets. As each man retired he would be 
busy inserting a cartridge in his rifle, and then he 
would turn round, fire, and continue the retirement. 

**The confusion was great from the commencement, 
but when the retreating line reached the deep nullah, 
a considerable obstacle at the best of times, it became 
a regular chaos. 

"Into it they all tumbled pell-mell, and such was 
the rush that McMath's colour-sergeant fell upon his 
own sword and was killed ; of the oflScers many were 
wounded before reaching the gardens; Garrett was 
shot through the legs, and after trying in vain to 
struggle on fell down. McMath was wounded in the 
hand just before the line gave way, and shortly after 
he was seen on his horse slowly retiring with his 
company, his right arm shattered and hanging by a 
shred of desh, but after that he must have been hit 
again, for he never reached the gardens, though his 
horse came into Kandahar. 

**The Colonel was aJso wounded when he reached 
the gardens, and poor Bayner, our Adjutant, had his 
shoulder shattered. Honeywood, Olivey, Barr, and 
Lynch all entered the gardens unwounded, and so I 
believe did Boberts, but I am not sure about that. 

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110 THE 66th BEaiMENT. 

Cullen was shot dead at an early period of the retire- 
ment. Of four youngsters who joined us at Kandahar, 
only the other day, only one came out of the battle. 

* * At the beginning of the fight the colours were carried 
by OHvey and Honeywood, both of whom clung to 
them after they were wounded;, OKvey, it is said, 
angrily refusing to give them up. Honeywood, badly 
hurt in the legs and unable to stand, was holding his 
colour up high, and calHng on the men to rally round 
it, when the death-shot struck him. Barr and Sergeant- 
Major Cuppage, who took them next, were killed almost 
at once ; and the Colonel when last seen, was on his 
knees, clinging to one. It soon became evident that 
the attempt to stand in the garden was hopeless. The 
General could do nothing without his staff, and Heath, 
his Brigade-Major, had had his head taken off with a 
round shot, and Harris, of our regiment, Deputy- 
Assistant-Quarter-Master-General, was wounded. In 
our regiment, of eighteen ofl&cers who went into action, 
eleven were killed or wounded either before, or shortly 
after, entering the gardens. 

** Of the remainder, Eeady was Field Officer of the 
day, and had charge of the baggage of the brigade; 
Quarry and Bray were with the baggage of the 
regiment; MelKss and the regular transport officer 
were also with the baggage. Peirse got a bullet 
through his helmet, which partially stunned him, and 
when he recovered he was sent to the back of the 
gardens by Colonel Mainwaring, of Jacob's Eifles, to 
prevent any men leaving it. Faunce had retired with 
the smooth-bore battery, whose left division he corn- 

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manded, so of all our ofl&cers only two were left unhurt 
with the men in the gardens. The native infantry 
regiments had lost nearly as many in proportion to 
their numbers. Broken up, and scattered, and crowded 
upon by the panic-stricken Sepoys, the 66th continued 
to fight in knots and groups. Many who tried to rally 
to the colours were carried away by the stream of 
fugitives — *in the lost battle borne down by the flying.' 
So utterly cowed were the men of Jacob's Eifles that 
when Peirse, standings with his cocked revolver at 
the rear entrance of one of the gardens, forbade 
them to leave it, they crouched down by the back wall, 
until they were killed like a flock of unresisting sheep. 
At last the General saw it was of no use, so he ordered 
the 'retire' to be sounded, and told the men to make 
the best of their way to Kandahar, some five-and-forty 
miles away." Then most of the men that could extricate 
themselves withdrew from the garden, though some 
would not retire, and stood to the last where the 
colours, or some disabled ofGicer, offered a point of 
attraction. Many a V.C. was gained that day by 
those who are beyond the reach of all reward ! 

**0f all the 66th ofiicers who entered the geirden, 
only OHvey,. Eoberts, Peirse, Lynch, and Lonergan 
left it. Eoberts, who was mortally wounded, was 
carried off on the general's horse — his tliird — two 
having been killed under him. 

"Lynch was also wounded, though able to walk. As 
the men came out of the enclosures, they were at one 
point pressed rafcher closely by some of the enemy's 
cavalry ; but a few of our fellows, chiefly belonging to 

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112 THE 66th} eegiment. 

ray old company F, rushed at the horsemen with the 
bayonet and drove them off. The enemy's infantry 
and Ghazis did not press the retreat far beyond the 
gardens. In the meantime Quarry's company was 
successfully guarding the baggage against the enemy's 
cavalry, though our own squadrons in retreating had 
thrown the camels into confusion, and nearly ridden 
over some of his men; but soon the camel drivers 
took to their . heels, and the animals scattered 
hopelessly. Quarry, abandoning the hopeless attempt 
to guard the baggage, then betook himself to the task 
of covering the guns, already well started on the line 
of retreat. Falling back slowly, but steadily, he 
crossed the fatal nullah in good order, and, from 
behind it, deHveted some telling volleys. The enemy's 
cavalry were hovering all round him, but his men's 
steady shooting kept them at a respectful distance; 
and so fighting for every yard of ground, and preserving 
something of the nature of a well ordered rear-guard, 
G company of the 66th regiment, the last remnant of 
Burrowes' brigade, left the battle-field of Maiwand. 

"It was now past four o'clock; the prospect of 
plunder offered by the baggage, stopped anything like 
a vigorous pursuit on the part of the enemy, otherwise 
not a man — not an infantry man at any rate — would 
have got into Kandahar. Still, the retreat was terrible 
business, though not so disastrous as some of the 
telegrams reported. Of the 276 killed and missing in 
our own regiment, only about 20 men were~lost in the 
line of retreat, and some of those were killed by 
villagers, who turned out in arms all along the road. No 

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attempt was made by the General to rally the scattered 
brigade and get them into something like formation ; but 
the remnant of our own regiment was moved in two 
collected bodies, one going ahead with Beady and Peirse, 
and the other, under Quarry, bringing up the rear. 

" No food or drink had passed the men's lips since 
they left camp in the early morning, and the road was 
known to be waterless for the first twenty miles ; and 
when at last they came to the spot where they expected 
water the spring was dried up. 

"No attempt was made to 'turn the fugitives from- 
the waterless main road.' All through the night they 
struggled on, the men taking it in turns to ride on 
camels and on the guns and waggons. 

"The gunners of the E.B. behaved nobly, and 
were always ready to give up their seats to wounded 
or over-wearied men. 

"The smooth-bore battery stuck in the Argandab 
river, the horses being utterly done, so the guns were 
spiked and abandoned. 

"At Kokeran, part of the 2nd Brigade, who had 
been sent to bring in the fugitives, met them and 
drove off the tribesmen, who had collected to intercept 

"The last of the force with Quarry entered 
Kandahar about three o'clock on the afternoon of the 
28th. In pur regiment two wounded ofl&cers and 
thirty wounded men were brought in. I am not 
certain of the number of wounded in the other 
regiments, but the killed and missing were about 
as follows (N.B. — The terms are synonymous for 

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114 THE 66th beoimekt. 

Europeans, but not necessarily so for natives) : — R 
Battery, Boyal Horse Artillery, 3 officers and 40 men ; 
66tli Begiment, 10 officers and 276 men; 1st Grenadiers,. 
2 officers and 360 men (about); Jacob's Bifles, S 
officers and 230 men; sappers, 1 officer and 20 men ; 
cavalry brigade, 1 officer and 60 men ; staff, 1 officer. 
Total, killed and missing, about 20 officers and 980 
men. This does not include followers. I am proud 
to say that not one unwounded man of ours threw 
away his rifle. 

'*! need not speak of what I feel for the loss of all 
those fine fellows. Except two or three, all my 
greatest friends in the regiment have been swept away. 
The Colonel was as fine, honest, straightforward a 
gentleman as ever conmianded a regiment. 

"McMath, CuUen, Boberts, and Bayner were as 
fine fellows as there are in the army. 

"Honeywood, Olivey, and Barr were, I believe, as 
promising young fellows as one could wish for in one's. 
, regiment, and they all died nobly and as soldiers 
ought to die. 

"But it is for poor Chute that I grieve most of 
all. There is no satisfactory evidence about what 
became of him. He was acting Quarter- Master,, and 
very busy during the day bringing up and serving out 
reserve ammunition ; but after the line broke no one 
appears to have noticed him ; no one saw him fall, and 
I am afraid the exact manner of his death will never 
be known." 

Digitized by 


MAJOR ready's report. 116 

Extracts from notes by Major Ready, 66th regiment, 
dated 10th November, 1880. 

*'0n the 27th July last, I was in charge of the 
baggage-guards of Brigadier^General Burrowes* force. 
The guards consisted of — 1 company 66th regiment 
under X command of Captain John Quarry; 1 company 
1st Bombay Native Infantry ; 1 company 30th Bombay 
Native Infantry; a small guard of 1st N.I. with the 
treasure, and one of the 30th, N.I, with the Com- 
missariat Stores. 

"Marching from the camp near Kushk-i-Nakud, en 
route for Maiwand, we proceeded about eight miles, 
when we halted for about an hour near a village. 
Shortly after leaving this village, I descried the enemy, 
away to our left front, marching on a line converging 
towards our route to Maiwand ; there was a good deal 
of mirage, and it was difficult to see clearly, but, at 
the time, I estimated their strength at about 15,000 

**Our force changing direction towards the left, 
apparently to attack the enemy, I wheeled the baggage 
column to the left and followed on, until I reached a 
wide nullah ; which I entered, halting the baggage on 
its sheltered slope. In this nullah the field^hospital 
was placed. 

"Towards 11 a.m. our artillery opened on the enemy, 

who soon repUed with 30 guns ; these guns kept up a 

vigorous fire throughout the action. Finding that 

Ayoub's cavalry threatened our left flank, I extended 

Captain Quarry's company, so as to cover the left front 

of the baggage, and keep them off by their fire ; and 


ed by Google 

116 THE 66th regiment. 

this they did most effectually. I continued the line 
of Captain Quarry's skirmishers with half the company 
of the Bombay Grenadiers, and made a similar dis- 
position across our right front with the remaining half- 
company, and the company of Jacob's Eifles. 

**A number of the enemy — ^horsemen, Ghazis 
and villagers — making repeated attempts to push 
down the nullah, I found it necessary to call on 
Captain Quarry for 20 men, under 2nd-lieutenant 
Bray ; and this party I posted on the left bank of the 
nullah, so that they commanded the nullah, and thus 
prevented any of the enemy getting round to our rear. 
As some of the enemy's shells fell amongst the baggage. 
Colonel Malcolmson, who conmianded the rear-guard, 
requested me to withdraw the camels a little distance ; 
this was done, but the baggage-guards continued to 
hold their positions. 

" About 3 p.m., I observed some of our cavalry in 
the nullah, and presently E-B. battery E. H. Artillery, 
and some more cavalry crossed over (the smooth-bore 
guns, manned by the 66th, had crossed some time 
before); whereupon Captain Quarry withdrew his 
company to the left bank of the nullah, and joined 
Lieutenant Bray's party ; with whom I had remained 
since 2 o'clock. I now saw numbers of men — ^mostly 
sepoys — passing to our rear in twos and threes; 
having crossed the nullah higher up. Some of these 
men joined the baggage, which was then retiring ; but 
the majority made for the hills, looking, I presume, 
for water. 

"Captain Quarry's company covered the retreat in 

Digitized by 


MAJOB BEADY's report. 117 

skirmishing order; and a few of the 1st and 30th 
Native Infantry, with some other men whom I was 
able to collect, also formed part of the general line. 
Captain Slade, E.H.A., now called upon us to support 
him, and came into action firing several rounds with 
excellent effect. The enemy did not maintain a 
vigorous pursuit. • At about 5-30 p.m. their guns ceased 
firing, and after that, I consider that the pursuit ended. 

**2nd-lieutenant Melliss, 66th regiment (the Begi- 
mental-Transport-Ofl&cer), joined the baggage-guard 
during the action^ and assisted Captain Quarry and 
2nd-lieutenant Bray. These three ofl&cers showed 
great coolness and judgment and did excellent service. 
As we retired from the field, I saw Lieutenants Melliss 
and Bray carrying a box of ammunition, the contents 
of which they served out to all who had space for 
more. The men were greatly exhausted from want 
of food, as well as from the intense heat; and we 
were obliged to mount them (after providing for the 
sick and wounded) on baggage animals. As our field- 
hospital was for a time exposed to a heavy fire, I fear 
many of our sick and wounded perished. Towards the 
evening a squadron fell back and covered the retreat. 
About 9 p.m., I rode along the line of retreat, and 
endeavoured to restore some sort of order ; collecting 
men and baggage animals in parties, as far as was 
possible. I 

"I reached the Argandab river, near Kokeran, at 5 
a.m. on the 28th, having .with me a number of sepoys 
and camp followers ; also artillery waggons and baggage 
animals. Shortly afterwards I was met by Brigadier- 

Digitized by 



THE 66th begiment. 

General Brooke, to whom I reported myself, and 
requested that doolies and spare horses might be sent 
to the Argandab ford, to bring on the wounded, and 
help the guns across. I also reported that bodies of 
villagers were collecting, but that the pursuit had 
ceased. After this I proceeded to cantonments, and 
from thence went on to Kandahar." 

The undermentioned officers, non-commissioned officers 
and men of the 66th Foot, fell at Maiwand. 

Lieutenant Colonel 

Galbraith, J. 
Garratt, E. S. 
McMath, W. H. 
Cullen, T. J. 
Eoberts, W. 
Eayner, M. E. (Acting 

Chute, E. Trevor 
Honywood, A. 
„ Barr, H. J. 0. 

„ Ohvey, W. E. 

Surgeon Major Preston, and Lieutenant Lynch were 


2nd Lieutenant 

Digitized by 








Sergt. Major 

Cuppage, A. 


Arm Sergeant 

Colley, Eobert 



Apthorpe, John 



Bayne, Ja.Tnes 



Gover, Frederick 



Scadding, Samuel 



Cosgrave, John 



Cruise, John 



Davis, Thomas 



Fitzgerald, Eichard 



Guntripp, William 



Eice, George 



EoUings, Jesse 

. 672 


Spencer, Isaac (Pioneer- 



Symonds, William 



Walker, James 



Ireland, Eobert (Acting 



AyKng, William 



Bolton, George 



Brennan, Michael ' 



Connolly, Eichard 



Davis, Eli 



Hanks, Charles (Acting 



Mahoney, Eugene 



Milsome, William 

Digitized by 



THE 66th beqiment. 






Moreoroft, Enoch (Band- 



Smith, William 



Travers, Hugh 



Cohen, Henry 



Darby, Michael 



Groves, John | 



Goddard, George ' 



Johnstone, James 


Private - 

Acott, John 



Adams, John 



Allen, Edward 



Ambrose, Thomas 



Ashton, Samuel ^ 



Adams, Patrick 



Allen, Edwin 



Anderson, George 



Almond, Bobert 



Ackins, John 



Barratt, Crispin 



Beard, John 



Burton, James 



Basden, Alfred 



Beech, David 



Beggs, Edward 



Belcher, Abraham 



Bennett, James 



Bentley, George 



Beard, John 

Digitized by 




































Biffin, George 
Blake, Francis 
Bolton, Edwin 
Boon, Samuel 
Boucher, Henry 
Bracken, Michael 
Brown, James 
Brown, Thomas 
Brown, William 
Brown, Henry 
Bryant, Benjamin 
Bullock, David 
Burgess, John 
Burke, Edmund 
Burling, William 
Butler, Joseph 
Capel, Charles 
Campbell, John 
Cannings, John 
Carter, George 
Casey, Patrick 
Castle, Alfred 
Chamberlain, Charles 
Charman, John 
Clarke, James 
Churcher, George 
Cheeseman, William 
Cobem, William 
Collins, William 

Digitized by 


122 THE 66th begiment. 

























































1487 , 





Coleman, John 
Connolly, Bichard 
Cooke, Charles 
Cooke, William 
Cope, Joseph 
Cooney, John 
Cooper, Joshua 
Corke, James 
Croft, Charles 
Daniels, William 
Davis, George 
Davis, John 
Dawson, Frederick 
Dawson, John 
Dewe, Albert 
Diamond, Martin 
Didcock, Job 
Diningan, Peter 
Donnon, Eobert 
Donoghue, Charles 
Doran, Edward 
Dovmes, Patrick 
Dovmey, Owen 
Doyle, James 
Drewdtt, Philip 
Drew, Albert 
Dudman, James 
Duffy, Edward 
Dunne, Andrew 

Digitized by 





Rank. Names. 

1203 Private Dunn, Andrew 


, Durrant, Daniel 


, Eaton, John 


, Edwards, John 


Elvidge, Mark 


, Evans, John 


, Evans, John 


, Evars, David 

3452 ' 

, Fahey, Edward 


, Faulkner, Joseph 


, Feeney, John 


, Fields, John 


, Fisher, Frederick 


, Fitzgerald, John 


, Fitzpatrick, James 


, Fleming, William 


Foley, Patrick 


, Ford, John 


, Fraher, Michael 


, Froude, Henry 


Gibson, William 


, Gilbert, Frederick 


, Gunney, George 


, Gray, Jacob 


Green, William 


Green, Henry 


, Greenstock, John 


, Grimshaw, Joseph 


, Grist, Levi 

Digitized by 





Rank. Names. 

1461 Private Hanson, Joseph 


, Harmsworth, Thomas 


Harding, Henry 


Hazzell, WiUiam 


, Healey, James 


Hill, Charles 


, Hines, Eobert 


, Hinton, George 


, Hoare, John 


, HoUoway, Thomas 


Hohnes, Jesse 


, Hoskins, William 


, Houlehan, Edward 


, Hughes, Thojnas 


, ' Hmne, Benjamin 


, Huzzey, Andrew 


, Ingerfield, George 


, Jackson, Joseph 


, Jackson, William 


, Jacobs, Edward 


, James, William 


, James, Isaac 


, Jenkins, John 


, Jefferies, Alfred 


, Jones, George 


, Jones, Joseph 


, Jones, William 


, Kelly, James 


, Kelley, Thomas 

Digitized by VjOO^ 







Kent, John 



King, John 



King, Thomas 



Knight, Daniel 



Lambert, Eeuben 



Laing, Henry 



Lawrence, George 



Leach, Eobert Daniel 



Lennon, WilUam 



Lewis, Henry 



Lennard, Henry "" 



Lee, Eichard 



Lock, John 



McCaffery, O^wen 



McDermott, John 



McGinley, John 



McLaren, James 



Mc Manns, William 



Maloney, Cornelius 



Mannons, John 



Martin, Henry 



Martin, John 



Masterson, John 



Mathews, David 



Meadhurst, Frederick 



Mead, William 


, J 

Merritt, James 



Morgan, Joseph 



Munday, Walter 

Digitized by 


126 THE 66th begiment. 






Murrell, Henry 


Neal, Martin 


Newton, Thomas 


Northcott, Alfred 


OUey, Joseph 


O'Niel, Thomas 


Orris, Arthmr 


O'Eielly, Michael 


Palmer, John 


Partington, Matthew 


Perkins, William 


Perris, Frederick 


Pettit, Oscar 


Pooley, Philip 

' 181 

Pound, John 


Proctor, John 


Eavensoroft, Joseph 


Richardson, James 


Kechall, John 


Bitchie, John 


Roach, Joseph 


Rolf, Charles 


Ryan, Alfred 


Seery, Patrick 


Sharp, Richard 


Shelly, Shadrack 


Sherville, Herbert 


Shiner, Henry 


Shute, Edwin 

Digitized by 


ehiLBD at uaiwand. 



Bank. Names. 

461 Private . Sibson, George 


, Sims, Thomas 


, Slevin, John 


, ^taymaker, Charles 


, Smith, James 


Smith, Edwin 


, Smith, John 


, Smith, Daniel 


, Smith, John 


, Stacey, Thomas 


Stallard, WilliR,m 


, Stevens, George 


, Stephens, Joseph 


, Stroud, John 


, Sutton, James 


, Thompson, Charles 


, Thome, Bnos 


, Tippin, Emanuel 


, Townsend, John 


, Trewenhard, William 


Tuttle, George 


, Veeney, William 


^ Vemum, Alfred 


, Vigors, Harry 


, Waight, Harry 


Wakefield, James 


, Walsh, John 


Ward, Patrick 


Watts, Joshua 

Digitized by 



THE 66th begiment. 

^f ^1 Rank. Names. 

1123 Private 

J Webb, Harry 


Welsh, Samuel 


Werrell, Frederick 


Weston, Lester 


Willett, James 


Williams, Edward 


Wilson, William 


Wilson, Henry 


Winter, Isaac 


Wood, WilUam 


Wajnae, John 


Webb, William 


West, George 


White, Henry 


Whiting, Charies 


Wiggins, Thomas 


Wolstenholme, Eichard 


Wilson, James 


Yandall, George 

The 66th lost both their Colours, and most of the 
regimental papers. 

In conclusion, we will quote at length, a letter (dated 
1st October, 1880,) written by Lieutenant-General 
Primrose, C. S. I. 

" To His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief in India. 

" Sib, 

"In forwarding the accompanying documents, 

I would most respectfully wish to bring to H. E. the 

Commander-in-Chief's notice the gallant and deter- 

Digitized by 



mined stand made by the officers and men of the 
66th Eegiment at Maiwand. 

" The disposition of the Regiment wa^s as follows: — 

*' Fighting line, 15 officers, 364 men all ranks. 

" Baggage guard, 4 „ 63 

" Smooth-bore battery, 1 officer, 42 men. 

" Sick, 32 men. 

*' Of this number, 10 officers and 275 men were 
killed, and 2 officers and 30 N.C.O. and men wounded. 

** These officers and men nearly all fell fighting for 
the honor of their Queen and Country. 

** I have it on authority of a Colonel of Artillery of 
Ayoub Khan's Army, who was present at the time, 
that a party of the 66th Regiment which he estimated 
at 100 officers and men, made a ^lost determined 
stand. They were surrounded by the whole of the 
Afghan Army, and fought on until only 11 men were 
left, inflicting enormous loss upon the enemy. These 
11 meh charged out of the garden and died with their 
faces to the foe, fighting to the death; such was the 
nature of their charge and the grandeur of their 
bearing, that, although the whole of . the Ghazis were 
assembled around them, not one dared approach to 
cut them down. 

**Thus standing in the open, back to back, firing 
steadily and truly, every shot telling, surrounded 
by thousands, these eleven officers and men died; and 
it was not until the last man had been shot down that 
the Ghazis dared advance upon them. 

'*He further adds that* the conduct of these men 
w£liS the admiration of all who witnessed it; this is 


Digitized by 


130 THE 66th regiment. 

the testimony of a man who witnessed the scene, and 
who gave the information l^efore Brigadier-General 
Daubeny proceeded to Mai wand. 

'* From an examination of the ground, from corrobo- 
rative evidence, and from the position in which the 
bodies were found, I have not the least hesitation in 
stating that this account is true; and I think that 
His Excellency will agree with me when I say that 
history does not afford any grander or finer instance of 
gallantry and devotion to Queen and Country than 
that displayed by the 66th Eegiment on the 27th of 
July, 1880. 

** A nominal roll of the ofi&cers and men who fought 
and died thus no.bly has been already forwarded to 
you, and inquiries from survivors elicit the following 
facts : — 

''Lieutenant-Colonel Galbraith was last seen on the 
nullah bank kneeUng on one knee with a Colour in 
his hand, officers and men rallying around him, and 
on this spot his body was found; here too, fell 
Captain McMath a gallant soldier, and one who 
would, had his life been spared, have risen to 
distinction in H.M's Service-: close by, 2nd Lieutenant 
Barr was shot dead over one of the Colours. 

''Captains Garrett and CuUen were both killed on 
the field in front of the nullah, up to the last moment 
commanding their companies and giving their orders 
with as much coolness as if on an ordinary regimental 

" Captain Boberts was mortally wounded in the 
garden, where the last stand was made, and here also 

Digitized by 



fell Lieutenants Eayner and Chute, 2nd Lieutenants 
OUvey and Barr; the two latter officers were seen 
holding up the colours, the pole of which was shattered 
to pieces, as rallying points; and Lieutenant Hony- 
wood was shot down whilst holding a Colour high 
-above his head, shouting, ' Men what shall we do to 
save this? ' 

" Sergeant-Major Cuppage was shot dead outside 
the garden whilst carrying a colour, and many other 
N.C. Oflficers and men laid down their lives in the 
■attempt to save the Colours of their Begiment on that 

** With the gallant band who made this last grand* 
•effort, fought and died Major Blackwood, E.H.A., 
Lieutenant Henn, E.E., and Lieutenant Hinde, Ist 
•Grenadiers with some of his men. 

" The men of the 66th Kegiment on baggage guard 
under the command of Captain Quarry, did excellent 
service during the retreat. 

'* The party told off to man the smooth-bore battery 
under Lieutenant Faunce, worked their guns steadily 
and well during the fight. 

** I have, &c., 
(Signed) J. M. Primrose, Lieutenant-Genetal." 


Digitized by 


Cj^ajjhr la* 

29th July, 1880, to Int July, 1881.-~Siege of Kandahar— Attack on 
Deh Kojah — Relief of Kandahar by General Sir Frederick 
Roberts — Burial of the dead at Maiwand — Return of the 
regim<)nt to England — Numercial distinctions abolished — Finis. 

' FTER the return of the survivors of Brigadier- 
General Burrowes* ill-fated column to Kanda- 
har, the whole of the troops in cantonments 
were moved into the citadel, where was 
stored an abundant supply of provisions and 
ammunition, and here they were besieged by 
the Afghans until the 31st of August. 

For some days there were comparatively few shots 
exchanged, but on the 16th August a portion of the 
garrison attacked the village of Deh Kojah, which was 
held by a strong body of the en§my. 

The force engaged in this sortie consisted of the 7th 
Boyal Fusihers, and the 19th and 28th. Native Infantry, 
under command of General Brooke. The remainder of 
the troops in the citadel, including the 66th, manned the 
ramparts, from whence the artillery poured a destructive 
fire of shell into Deh Kojah. 

Three companies of the Fusiliers fought their way into 
the village, but being greatly out-numbered by the enemy 

Digitized by 



— who kept running in from all sides — ^had a desperate 
struggle to get clear again. They captured three guns, 
which, however, they were forced to abandon, having no 
means of bringing them into the citadel. The attack 
was made shortly after five o'clock, and the fighting 
continued until between nine and ten. The British lost 
8 officers and 82 men killed; 7 officers and 97 men 
wounded. Amongst the former was General Brooke. 

The enemy's losses were estimated at 2000 killed, and 
a great number wounded, including several of Ayoub's 
principal officers. 

The following telegrams were received on this occa- 
sion: — 

From the Queen Empress of India to the Viceroy — 
" My heart bleeds for the loss of so many officers 

and men; pray express my sympathy and anxiety for 

the wounded.** 

From the Commander-in-Chief in India — 

'* I sympathise with you and the troops in the losses 

sustained at Maiwand and on the 16th instant, greatly 

regretting General Brooke and the brave fellows who 

have fallen.'* 

On the 27th August the beleaguered garrison sighted 
the force which was marching to their relief, under 
Major-General Sir Frede^ck Boberts. 

Roberts reached Kandahar on the 31st, and that same 
evening his cavalry brigade, when making a recon- 
naisance, was fired upon by the enemy, and had to retire. 

Next morning (1st September) General Boberts, at the 
head of 11,000 men, with 32 guns, attacked Ayoub 
Khan's army, which was strongly entrenched near Baba 

Digitized by 


134 THB 66th begiment. 

Wali. The action commenced about 8 a.m. ; soon the 
enemy were forced to abandon their position, and flying. 
in confusion, they allowed their camp and nearly all 
their artillery to fall into the hands of the British. 
Thirty-two guns were captured, amongst them the two- 
field-pieces taken from the Horse Artillery at Maiwand. 
The relief of Kandahar was thus successfully accom- 

A few days — 9th September — after this brilliant 
victory, Lieutenant Beresford Pierse was ordered to 
proceed to M^iwand with a party (consisting of Lieu- 
tenant Brpice, 1 sergeant, 1 corporal, and 18 privates,) 
for the purpose of burying the dead, who fell on the 
fatal 27th July. 

This mournful task completed, the party returned to* 
Kandahar, arriving there on the 23rd September. The 
previous day, Lieutenant-Colonel S. G. C. Hogge had 
joined Head-quarters — from command of the Deolali 
Dep6t — and on assuming command of the regiment, he 
published the following order : — / 

' '* Captain Pierse having reported most favourably 
of the men who accompanied him to Maiwand, the 
commanding-ofticer takes the opportunity of thanking 
Captain Pierse, Lieutenant Bruce, and the non- 
commissioned-officers and men for the manner in 
which they performed the painful and arduous duty of 
burying the dead who fell at Maiwand. He is proud 
to inform the regiment that on all sides he heara 
admiration expressed of the gallant conduct of the 
regiment on the fatal field of Maiwand; and thal^ 
during the siege, the officers, non-comnciissioned officers^ 

Digitized by 



and men, were conspicuous for the cheerful and willing 

way in which they.performed continuous and harassing 

duties. Such conduct reflects the greatest credit on 

all concerned, and he ventures to hope it will not be 

un-recognised by higher authority.*' 

Lieutenant Beresford Pierse was promoted to a 
company on the 31st May; vice E. M. Hall retired on 
half-pay, the notification of his promotion being received 
during his absence at Maiwand. 

The 66th marched from Kandahar on the 1st October, 
1880, en route for India, and arrived at Quetta on the 
13th. After a fortnight's rest at Quetta, the march was 
resumed ; Pir Chowki was reached on the 3rd November, 
and from thence the regiment proceeded by rail to 
Kurrachee, where it arrived on the 7th November. 

Major C. V. Oliver, who had been left at Kandahar 
to bring down a convoy of sick and wounded, died of 
small-pox, on the 10th October. He had served in the 
66th for upwards of five-and-twenty years, and his death 
was thus referred to in orders : — 

"The Lieutenant-Colonel feels sure that the loss of 

this officer will be deeply regretted by all who knew 

him." I 

On the 19th January, 1881, the 66th under tommand 
of Lieutenant-Colonel S. G. C. Hogge, proceeded to 
Bombay, and sailed for England next day in H.M. 
troopship, Malabar. 

The Malabar reached Portsmouth on the 18th 
February, and on the 19th the regiment disembarked, 
and proceeded to the Isle of Wight, to be stationed at 

Digitized by 


136 THE 66th regiment. 

On the 24th February, the regiment was inspected by 
H.S.H. Prince Edward of Saxe Weimar, commanding 
the Southern District ; ancl a second inspection took 
place on the 11th March, when the Inspecting Ofl&cer — 
H.R.H. Duke of Cambridge, Field-Marshal-Commanding- 
in-Chief — complimented the 66th on their soldierly 
appearance on parade, and their admirable conduct 
during the time they were in active service in Afghanistan. 

Earily in April, a detachment of the regiment, under 
command of Captain Murphy, with Lieutenant Williams 
as his subaltern, proceeded to Cowes, and were there 
stationed during xthe time Her Majesty the Queen 
remained at O&bome. 

We must now bring these brief records of the 66th to 
a conclusion; for we have reached that period in its 
history when — the territorial system of organization 
being introduced — the regiment ceased to be designated 
by its time-honoured number. 

Oa the 1st July, 1881, the 66th Foot became the 
**2nd Battalion, Princess Charlotte of Wales* Berkshire 
Regiment"; at the same time, the green, facings, which 
had been worn for upwards of 120 years, were changed 
to white. "^ 

Loyalty, courage, and obedience, have ever been the 
characteristics of this good old corps. Whenever 
engaged on active service — whether in the pestilential 
island of St. Domingo — on the " stricken fields ** of the 
Peninsula— amongst the jungles and mountain-passes of 

* In 1886, in recognition of the gallantry displayed by the let 
Battalion (late 49th foot,) during the Soudan War, the " Berkahires " 
were made a " Royal " regiment, and blue facings were then substituted 
for white. 

Digitized by 


THE END. 137 

l^epaul — or at the glorious, though fatal, fight of 
Mai wand — the officers and soldiers of the 66th have 
proved themselves worthy of the confidence of their 
Sovereign, and of their country; and by their gallant 
bearing and steadiness in action have helped to add 
lustre to the British arms and exalt the military 
reputation of the Empire. 


Digitized by 




*Edwabd Sandpobd 

♦John La Faussile, 

♦Lord Adam Gordon, 

♦Joseph Gabbett, 

♦John, Earl op Clanricardb, 

2l8t April, 1758. 
24th August; 1758. 
19th January, 1763. 
13th January, 1776. 
27th November, 1794. 

Oliver Nicholls, 18th July, 1808. 

This officer was the second son of Jaspar NicoUs, and was bom at 
Duncannon Fort, County Wexford, on the Ist October, 1742. On 
the 4th February, 1750, he was appointed a Mattross in the Corps 
of Artillery, and on the 17th of the same month a Gunner. He 
received his commis-sion as Ensign in the "Royals" on 22nd 
November, 1756. Became Lieutenant in that Kegiment, 4th 
March. 1760, and Adjutant on 30th May, 1767. In 1768, the 
Regiment went to Gibraltar. He became Captain, 25th June^ 
1773, and in 1775, returned to England. In 1780, went to the 
West Indies, and served on board the Fleet till the capture of St. 
Eustatius. Became Major on 14th March, 1781, still retaining the 
Adjutancy of the Regiment. In 1 785, when quartered in London^ 
deiTy as Major of the ** Royals," he received the freedom of that 
city. On the 6th February, 1787, became Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
in June of that year, was posted to the 45th Regiment, then in 
the West Indies. Commanded the troops in Grenada, from 1789 
to 1792. The Reg^ent then returned home to Guernsey, when, 
he acted as Brigadier. When on leave in Wexford in July, 1793,. 
he received the thanks of the inhabitants of that town, and a gold 
medal, in recognition of the services he rendered to them in their 
defence against an armed mob. Became Colonel in the Army on 
the 1st March, 1794, and in December, 1794, went again to West 
Indies fts Bricradier-General, and Quarter- Master-General. Was 

* W e have not been able to obtain any recdrd of the services of these 

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Bent to Grenada — then in a state of insurrection — ^which he 
Bucoeeded in restoring to order. On the 20th May, 1795, was 
appointed Colouel of the 4th West India Regiment, which he was 
empowered to raise. He commanded the troops in Grenada till 
Ad ay, 1796, when he was appointed Major-General to the ^^taff of 
the Lancaishire (N. West ) District, and in 1798, succeeded to the 
command of that district — Head-quarters, Liverpool. On 2nd 
October, 1799, was presented with Freedom of Liverpool. Early 
in 1802, was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Bombay Presidency^ 
becoming Lieutenaut-General, 25th September, 18(>3. Left 
Bombay, 26th February, 1807, in the *» Ganges" When to S.E. of 
Madagascar, this vessel sprang a leak, aod went down head 
foremost. The passengers and crew were saved by the "<S^. Vincent", 
one of the fleet of Indiamen, among which the "Ganges^' was 
sailing, and" continued the voyage in that ship. On the 6th 
September, 1809, went to Canterbury in command of the Kent 
District, which command terminated on the •24th June, 1812. In 
1808, he was senior member of the Court of Inquiry into the 
Convention of Cintra — Sir Hugh Dalrymple, Sir Harry Burrard, 
and Sir Arthur Wellesley, (afterwards Duke of Wellington,) being 
the three Generals whose conduct of that affair was examined 
into. General Nicholls died at Chichester, Sussex, on the 8rd of 
December, 1829. 

SiB W1LLIA.M Anson, K.C.B., 7th December, 1829. 

Ensign, 1st Foot Guards, 13th June, 1739; Lieutenant and 
Captain, 25th April, 1793; Captain and Lieutenant- Colonel, 28th 
November, 1797; Colonel, 13th October, 1806; Major-General, 
4th June, 1811; Lieutenant-General, 12th August, 1819. Sir W. 
Anson served on the Continent, 1793-95, in Sicily, 1806-8. On 
the 9th September, 1808, he embarked for Spain, and was 'present 
at the battle of Corunna. He fought in the subsequent campaigns 
in the Peninsula, and was present at Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrenees,. 
Nivelle, Orthes, and Toulouse. His name was mentioned in the 
vote of thanks from Parliament, for Salamanca, the Pyrenees, and 
Orthes, and he was made a K.C.B., and awarded a cross, with three 
clasps, for his services in the Peninsular War. 

EiOHABD Blunt, 25th March, 1835. 

Ensign, 3rd Foot, 31st January, 1787 ; Lieutenant, 23rd February, 
1791; Ciiptain, 12th July, 1793; Major, 17th May, 1796; Lieu- 
tenant-Qolonel, 23rd August, 1799; Colonel, 25th October, 1807; 
Major* General, 1st January, 1812; Lieutenant-General, 29th 
May, 1825; General, 23rd November, 1841. General Blunt 
served in Lord Moira's expedition, and in Flanders in 1794-5. 
He was actively employed under Sir Ralph Abercromby, iu the 
West Indies, 1795-1802; and he also served in Hanover, Madeira, 
and in the Peninsular War. General Blunt was a Knight 
Commander of the "Tower and Sword of Portugal." 

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140 THE 66th BEaiMENT. 

Edwabd Wells Bell, 26th December, 1869. 

Lieutenant, 16th May, Idll; Captain, 20th June, 1822; Major, 
19th December, 1826; Lieutenant-Colonel, 29th June, 1830; 
Colonel, 9th November, 1846; Major-GrenenJ, 20th June, 1854; 
Lieutenant-GenexAl, 27th December, 1860. Lieutenant-General 
Bell joined the 7th Royal Fusiliers in the Peninsula, in 1811, and 
served there until the end of the war. In 1841, he embarked 
with the Fusiliers, to join the force before New Orleans. He 
subsequently joined the army of occupation in Paris, and remained 
there until its withdrawal War Medal and three clasps. 

Thomas Henry Johnston, 10th October, 1870. 

Ensign, 66th Foot, 2l8t February, 1822; Lieutenant, 1st October, 
1826; Captain, 24th October, 1826; Major, 20th May, 1836; 
Lieutenant-Colonel, 28th December, 1838; Colonel, 11th November, 
1851 ; Major-General, 4th June, 1857 ; Lieutenant-Greneral, 31st 
January, 1864; General, 5th December, 1;<71. General Johnston 
served with the 66th in Canada during the rebellion of 1837-8, 
(see page 86.) and afterwards commanded the regiment for many 
years on foreign service. 

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Wab Sebvices of Ofpicebs of the 66th Eegiment. 

Adams, Captain and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel— Died of wound* 
received at the battle of Talavera. See page 44. 

Bablow, Paymaster Cuthbert. —Ensign, 7th January, 1810; Lieu- 
tenant, 13th January, 1814 ; Paymaster, 22nd Regiment, 3rd 
January, 1828. Mr. Barlow, previous to entering the army, 
served three years as a Midshipman in the Royal Navy. He 
served afterwards with tlie 66th Foot in the Penintiular Wiar, from 
August, 1810, to April, 1812; also in the campaign in Nepaul, in 
1816. Subsequently he served against the Mahrattas, in 1817-18 ; 
also with the 10th Foot at the battle of Sol)raon, (Medal) ; and 
with the 9th Lancers at the passage of the Chenab, at Ramnuggur, 
and the battles of Chillianwallali, and Goozerat. (Medal and 

Babb, 2nd Lieutenant Habbt J. O. — 2nd Lieutenant, 14th January, 
1880. Killed at Maiwand. Seep. 114. 

Bbnnino, Captain C. — Wounded at the passage of the Douro. Killed 
at Albuhera, when commanding the regiment. A medal was sent 
to his relatives. See p.p. 33 and 56. 

Bbbesford-Pierse, Major William J. de la Poer. — Sub-Lieutenant, 
14th August, 1872 ; Lieutenant, 14th August, 1873; Captain, 31st 
May, 1880; Major, 16th October, 1884. Served with the 66th in 
the Afghan War Of 1879-80, and was present at Maiwand. 
Mentioned in despatches. Medal with clasp. See p. 111. 

Blakenet, Major Henbt Pearse.— Ensign, 66th Foot, 9th July» 
18o3 : Lieutenant, 24th March, 1804 ; Captain, 25th April, 1806 ; 
Brevet- Major, 12th August, 1809. Major Blakeney served with 
the 6t>th in Spain and Portugal ; and in 1814, as Brigade-Major, 
on the Staff of Major-General Lord Aylmer. 

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142 THE 66th begimbnt. 

BowYEB, Lieut. -General Henry.— Commanded the 66th, 1788-94. 
Served as Brigadier-General in St. Domingo, (see page 7). Major- 
General 26th February, 1795; Lieutenant-General, (local; West 
Indies) 8th May, 1798. Colonel 16th Regiment of Foot, 15th 
December, 1797. 

Beat, Captain Reginald Edward Traherne. — 2nd Lieutenant, 14th 
January, 1880; Lieutenant, 28th July, 1880; Captain, 13th 
February, 1886. Captain Bray served with the 66th in the Afghan 
War of 1880, and was present in the aflPair with the Wall's 
Mutineers, (16th July), at Maiwand, and at the subsequent defence 
and battle of Kandahar. Mentioned in despatches. Medal with 
clasp. ('>ee pp. 116-17.) Captain Bray served also in the Soudan 
Expedition of 1884-5. Medal with ^jlasp. 

Bruoe, Captain F. Mc Crae.— Ensign, 24th December, 1870 ; Lieu- 
tenant, 28th October, 1871 ; Captain, 28th July, 1880. Captain 
Bruce serve^ with the t)6th Regiment during the Afghan War, 
1879-80; march from Khelat-i-Ghilzai to relief of Kandahar; 
battle of 1st September. Medal with cli^p, and bronze star. 

BULSTRODB, Captain Augustus. — Served with the 66th in the 
Peninsula, and was severely wounded at the Nive, 13th December. 
See p. 71. 

Bunnt, Captain F. Mo Tier. — 2nd Lieutenant, 14th January, 1880 ; 
Lieutenant, 29th September, 1880 ; Captain, 16th November, 1886. 
Served in Southern Afghanistan i^ 1879-80. Medal. 

Campbell, Major Thomas Bucheley.— Quarter-Master, 66th Foot, 
2l8t December, 1786 ; Lieutenant, 16th October, 1792 ; Captain, 
2nd June, 1796 ; Brevet- Major, 13th May, 1804 ; Major, 62nd 
Foot, 1st September, 1804. Rethred full pay, (rank stationary) in 
1807. This oflBcer served with the 66th in St. Domingo, and was 
present at the attack on Turgeau, and other affairs. • See page 6-7. 

Oablton, MAjpB Edward.— Ensign, 24th March, 1803 ; lieutenant, 
9th February, 1804 ; Captain, 25th July, 1805*; Major, 4th June, 
1813. Served with 1st Battalion 66th in Jersey when arrange- 
ments of defence against invasion were being concerted. Served 
as Fort Major at Trincomalee, and as commandant of Batticaloa» 
a fortress in the island of Pocliantove. Served with his regiment 
throughout Nepaulese War, 1815-16, (see page 22) and accompanied 
it to Saint Helena. Was transferred to 2nd Battalion on 24th 
July, 1817, and placed on half pay when that battalion was 
reduced, 24th November, 1817. 

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Oaulfeild, Lieutenant Algernon Montoomebib. — ^Lieutenant, 17th 
December, 188 J. Served with the 6t)th in thft Afghan War of 
1879-80. MedaL Mr. Gaulfeild was also awarded the Medal for 
" Meritoiious Service in the Field," 

Chute, 2nd Lieutenant Trevor. — Killed at Mai wand. See p. 114. 

Clarke, Lieutenant-Colonel John. -(Military Knight of Windsor). 
Ensign, 14th July, 1808 ; Lieutenant. 3rd October, 1809 ; Captain, 
13th January, 1825 ; Major, 28th June. 1838 ; Lieutenant- Colonel, 
28th November, 1854. This gallant officer served in the Peninsula 
with the 2nd Battalion 66th, from March. 1809. to the end of the - 
war in 1814 ; including the passage of the Douro, the battle of 
Talavera, lines of Torres Vedras, actions of Arroyos dos Molinos and 
Campo Mayor, battle of Albuhera, siege of Badajoz, battle of 
Vittoria, the Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, actions of St. Palais 
and Aire, and battle . of Tolouse ; besides numerous skirmishes. 
At Albuhera, when commanding a company of flankers, he was ^ 
struck down and taken prisoner, but made his escape (see pp. 52-4) . 
in a charge of cavalry. Colonel Clarke received the W ar Medal 
with 8 clasps. He also served with the 66th during the Canadian 
Kebellion of 1837-8. 

CoATES, General James. — ^This officer entered the service in the year 
1755, as an Ensign in the 19th Foot. In 1767, vthe 19th was 
augmented to two battalions, the second of which subsequently 
became the 66th Foot (Colonel La Pausille's). Ensign Coates was 
attached to the new corps. On the 24th August, 1761, he succeeded 
to the rank of Captain-Lieutenant, (see list for 1761,) and 
on 2nd April, 1762, obtained his company. Up to this date, 
Coates had been employed on the Recruiting Service ; but he now 
embarked with his regiment for Lreland, and from thence sailed for 
the West Indies. In 1766, he purchased the Majority of his 
regiment, and after remaining ten years in the West Indies, 
lHX)ught it home.* 

Major Coates had been appointed Brevet-Lieutenant-Colonel in 
September, 1765, and on 25th October, 1775, he purchased the 
Lieutenant-Colonelcy of his old corps, the 19th. A brigade was 
subsequently formed; consisting of the 3rd, 19th, and 30th 
Regiments, under Colonel Gould, which sailed for America, and 
landed at Charlestown ; where Lieutenant-Colonel Coates was 
appointed Brigadier-General. He was slightly wounded in America 

When the American War was drawing, to a conclusion, this 

Brigade was sent to the West Indies, and Colonel Coates was with 

.the 19th at Jamaica, almost the whole time it was stationed there. 

♦ Tlie M.S. Hecords of the 66tli do uot neiitit d tlis tour of foreign service (see 
page 2) anil uufortonately, we obtained tie iuloimation too late to make the 
necessary aiteiation in the body of the work. 

Digitized by 


144 THE 66th beqiment. 

This officer's subsequent oommissions bear date as follows: — 
Colonel, 16th May, 1781 ; Major-General, 28th April, 1790 ; 
Lieutenant-Greneral, 26th Januaiy, 1797 ; General, 29th April, 

CoDD, Lieutenant John. — ^Wounded at Albuhera. See page 56. 

COLTEB, Lieutenant. — Wounded at Talavera, and fell into the hands 
of the French when they entered the town after the Allied Armies 
retired tp Truscillo and Mondego. Colonel Clark relates that 
lieutenant Colter was carried prisoner to Madrid, but died 
suddenly on the road, from drinking cold water when heated. See 
page 44. 

Coulter, Ensign.— Killed at the battle of Albuhenw See page 56. ' 

CuFFE, Major Sir Charles Wheeler, Bart.— Ensign, 16th May, 
1851; Lieutenant, 21 si; April, 1854; Major on retired list, 26th 
April, 1859. Served as 2nd A. A. General on Lord Clyde's staff 
during the campaign in Oude, 1858-9, and was present at the 
actions of 1 )oondiakeria, Mugedia, and the Raptee. Medal with 
clasp, and Brevet of Major. 

Cullbn, Captain F. J.— Ensign, 21 st February, 1866; Lieutenant, 
81st August, 1869 i Captain, 18th October, 1879; Killed at 
Maiwandl See pp. 106 and 114. 

Davenport, Captain Edward Montagu.— Ensign, 24th April, 1885; 
Lieutenant, 6th August, 1838; Captain, 31st December, 1844. 
Served with the 66th in Canada during the rebellion of 1887-8, 
and was present at the action of St Denis. 

DoDGiN, Lieutenant-Colonel Daniel, C.B. -^Appointed Comet in the 
2nd Dragoon Guards, 3rd September, 1794 ; he joined, the 7th 
December following, and was in the action of Burin, on the Rhine, 
8th January, 1795. He was promoted Lieutenant, 26th May, 
1795, and returned with the Regiment to England in 1796 ; 
promoted 3rd May, 1800, to the Captain-Lieutenancy, and 
exchanged April, 18<)1, into the 54th Kegiment, which he joined 
in the latter part of the Campaign of 1801, in Egypt. He was 
placed on half -pay in Gibraltar, in September, 1802, and appointed 
to the 60tb Regiment, May, 1803, and to the 66th Regiment, 9th 
July. 1803. He left the 2nd Battalion in 1806, and joined 1st 
Battali< n in Ceylon. He was appointed Major, 29th June, 1809, 
and exchanged into the 69th Regiment, in April, 1810 : he was at 

Digitized by 



the taking of the Isles of Bourbon, in June, 1810, and France, in 
November and December, 1810 ; but his exchange not being 
approved, he returned to England in May, 1811 ; and embarked in 
June, and joined the 2nd Battalion 66th, in the Peninsula. He 
Commanded a battalion of Light Companies, in Major-General 
Byng's Division, from 1811 to 1814 ; and was with it at the action 
of Arroyo dos Molinos, 28th October, 1811 ; with the advance to 
and retreat from Madrid and Salamanca, in 1812 ; at the battle of 
Vittoria, (see p. 66), for which he obtained a medal, and the brevet 
of Lieutenant-Colonel; at the actions of the Pyrenees, for which he 
received a clasp; at St. Pallas, 15th February, 1814 ; at Orthes, 
for which he received another clasp ; and at Aire, 2nd March, 
1814, where he was severely woimded, (see p. 69 ) Lieutenant- 
Colonel Dodgin was engaged with the Light Companies eleven 
times, exclusive of the above. 

Dudgeon, Libutenant.— Died of wounds received at Talavera. Page 47. 

Dupp, Quaeteb-Master Patrick.— Mr. Duff served with the 66th 
during the Canadian Rebellion of 1837-8, and was present at the 
affairs of St. Denis and St. Charles. Mr. Duff was appointed 
Quarter-MasLter of the Cavan MiHtia, in 1855. 

Dunbar, Lieutenant-Colonel William.— Ensign, 81st March, 1802 ; 
Lieutenant, 8th August, 1803; Captain, 66th Foot, 4th August, 
1808 ; Brevet-Major, 21st April, 1813 ; Lieutenant-Colonel, 2l8t 
June, 1817. After serving with the 78th Highlanders in the 
Mahratta Campaigns of 1808-4, this officer changed to the 19th 
Light Dragoons, and was subsequently promoted into the 66th. 
He embarked with the 66th for PortugsJ, in 1809, and commanded 
his company at the passage of the Douro. Shortly after this he 
was appointed to the Staff, and continued to serve in the Peninsula 
until the conclusion of the war in 1814. He was- present at the 
battles of Talavera, Vittoria, the Pyrenees, and Toulouse, and also 
at Arroyo dos Molinos, Almarez, and St. Guadens; and was 
favourably mentioned in despatches. In 1815, he joined the Staff 
of the Army in France; and in 1818 returned home for the 
purpose of commanding the 66th Dep6t. 

Edmonds, Lieutenant-Colonel H. — (Barrack-master at Hounslow and 
Hampton Court, in 1856). Served with the 66th Regiment during 
the Peninsular War, from March, 1802 to 1814, and was slightly 
wounded at Talavera. 

Edwards, Captain Chablbs MoKenzie. — 2nd Lieutenant, 22nd 

January, 1879 ; Lieutenant, 14th November, 1879 ; Captain, 28th 

January, 1884. Captain Edwards served in the Afghan War of 

1879-80. Defence of Kandahar, and battle of Si^ptember 1st. 


Digitized by 


146 THE 66th begiment. 

(Medal and daip). Also with the Ist Battalion Boyal Berks 
Regiment in the Soudan Expeditions of 1885-6, including recon* 
naissaace to Hasheen ; actions at Hasheen and Tofrek ; operations 
at and destruction of Tamia ; and action at Ginnis. (Medal with 
2 clasps.) 

Faunoe, Captain G. db la Motte, — Lieutenant, 29th November, 1876; 
Captain, 30th October, 1883 ; Paymaster, 2nd Battalion Roytd 
Berks. Served with the 66th in the Afghan War of 1879-80 ; 
including action at Uirishk, battle of Maiwand, and retreat to 
Kandahar ; defence of Kandahar, and battle of the 1st September. 
Mentioned in despatches, London Gazette, 19th November and 
31st December, 1880. Medal and clasp. See page 131. 

Fabu, Lieutenant Gerald. — Wounded at the passage of the Douro, 
at Talavera, and at Vittoria. See pp. 33, 44, and 66. 

Febns, Captain William. — Wounded at Albuhera. Page 56. 

Fox, Lieutenant Chables. — ^Killed on 27th September, 1810, at an 
action fought on the Sierra Busaco. See page 47. 

Galbbaith, Colonel James. — Ensign, 12th December, 1851; Lieu- 
tenant, 6th June, 1854 ; Captain, 29th February, 1856 ; Major, 
18th August, 1869 ; Lieutenant-Colonel commanding 66th Foot, 
14th November, 1879. Lieutenant-Colonel Galbraith was killed 
at Maiwand. See pp. 109, 110-114. 

Gabbatt, Captain E. Stephen. — Ensign, 2nd June, 1865 ; Lieutenant, 
6th July, 1867 ; Captain, 5th March, 1870. Killed at Maiwand. 
See p. 109. 

€k)LDiB, Lieutenant-Genebal Geoboe Leigh, C.B. — Comet, 6th 
Dragoon Guards, 1803 ; Lieutenant, 1805 ; Captain, 66th Foot, 
21st January, 1808 ; Brevet-Major, 20th June, 1811 ; Lieutenant- 
Colonel, 12th August, 1819 ; Colonel, 10th January, 1837 ; Major- 
General, 9th November, 1846; Lieutenant-General, 20th June, 
1854 ; Colonel, 77th Regiment, 22nd December, 1854. This 
officer served with the 66th in tiie Peniiisula, from March, 1 809, 
to November, 1813, including the passage of the Douro, battles of 
Talavera, Busaco, Albuhera, Vittoria, and the Pyrenees ; besides 
many other minor actions and skirmishes. He was severely 
wounded in the Pyrenees, on the 30th July, 1813, and was 
reported "mortally wounded'* (see pages 68-69.) For his 
distinguished service. General Goldie received the G^ld Medal for 
Albuhera, and the Silver War Medal with four clasps ; he was also 
made a C.R 

Digitized by 



Gordon, MAJOB-GiancRAL Sib Jambs Willouohbt, Babonbt, K.C.B. — 
Ensign, 66th, 17th October, 1783 ; Lieutenant, 6th March, 1789 ; 
Captain, 2nd September, 1795; Major, 9th November, 1797; 
Lieut&nant-Ck)lonel, 21st May, 1801 ; Colonel, (Royal African 
Corps), 26th July, 1810 ; Major- General, 4th June, 1813. After . 
serving for four years with the 66th in the West Indies, this 
officer joined Lord Hood's fleet as volunteer, and prooe)eded to 
Toulon. He rejoined his regiment at Gibraltar, and was, in 1796, 
employed on the Staff in Ireland. In March, 1793, he rejoined 
the 66th at Halifax, and commanded the regiment until early 
the following year, when he was appointed Military Secretary to 
H.R.H. Duke of Kent, who was at that time Commander-in-Chief 
in British North America ; and returned with His Royal Highness, 
to England, in 1800. In the spring of 1801, Major Gordon was 
appointed Lieutenant-Colonel in the 86th. He subsequently held 
various Staff appointments, and in October, 1818, was created a 
Baronet. Before a Committee of the House of Commons, in 1809, 
Colonel Gordon thus stated his services : — " I have served His 
Majesty very nearly twenty-six years ; for the last twenty-four of 
which, I have been employed in every part of the world, (the East 
Indies excepted), where His Majesty's troops have been stationed. 
I have been four times to the West Indies ; twice to America ; and 
all over the Mediterranean. It has been my fortune, very 
undeservedly perhaps, to have a sword voted for my services, and 
to have been repeatedly thanked by General Officers under 
whom I have been placed. It is perhaps a singular part of my 
service, that I not oidy served in every situation in the Army, from 
an Ensign up to my present rank, but I have also served in every 
situation upon the Staff of the Army, without one single 

Hall, Libutenant-Colonel Gbobgb William Monk. — Ensign, 31st 
May, 1859 ; Major, Ist July, 1881 ; Honorary-Lieutenant- 
Colonel, 6th September, 1883. Colonel Hall served with the 66th 
in Southern Afghanistan, in 1879-80. 

Hand, Lieutenant F. — ^Wounded at Talavera and Albuhera. See pp. 
44 and 66. 

Habvbt, Lieutenant Thomas J. — ^Wounded at Talavera and Albuhera. 
See pp. 44 and 66. 

Hat, Ensign. — Severely wounded at Albuhera by a Polish Lancer. 
(See pp. 63). He recovered from his wound, but died of 
consumption a few years later. 

HiOKEN, Lieutenant T. B. — ^Wounded at Albuhera. See p. 66. 

HONETWOOD, 2nd Lieutenant Abthub.— 2nd Lieutenant, 14th January, 
1880. Killed at Maiwand. See pp. 109, 10-14, and 131. 

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148 THE 66th regiment. 

Habrib, Major Thomas.— Ensign, 18th December, 1863; lieutenant 
7th January, 1868; Captain, 10th October, 1874; Major, 8th 
January, 1883. Served in the Afghan War of 1879-80, as D. A.Q.M. 
General Kandahar Field Force, and was present in the engage- 
ments at Girishk, (wounded), and on the Helmund (mentioned in 
despatches), at Maiwand, (wounded), and in the defence of 
Kandahar, (Medal). Major Harris is now serving as D.A.A. 
Greneral, Madras, p. 110. 

Hatton, Libdtenant-General John. — Ensign, 66th Foot, 29th June, 
1780 ; Lieutenant, 16th July, 1782 ; Captain, 21st July, 1783 ; 
Major, 2nd September, 1795 ; Lieutenant- Colonel, 17th August, 
1797; Colonel, 30th October, 1805; Major-General, 4th June, 
1811 ; Lieutenant-General, 12th August, 1819. This officer served 
with the 66th in the West Indies for eight years, and at Gibraltar 
for three years. As Major, he commanded *the regiment at the 
attack on Leogane, St. Domingo (see page 7), and subsequently, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel in North America, and India, (see pp. 9 and 
13). In 1807, he returned from India, and was appointed to the 
Staff in Aldemey ; in 1811, he was serving on the Staff at Perth, 
with the rank of Major-General. 

Healey, Lieutenant John. — ^Ensign, 4th December, 1857 ; Lieutenant, 
21 St April, 1860. Served in the 83rd Foot during the Indian 
Campaign; was present at the reduction of the fort of Arrah, 
January, 1858, siege and assault of Kotah, defeat of Gwalior 
rebels at Kotaria, and attack on rebels at Seckur. Medal. 

HsNRT, In8Peotor-General-of-Hospital8 Walter. — Hospital Assis- 
tant, 11th April, 1811 ; Assistant Surgeon, 19th December, 1811 ; 
Surgeon, 8th June, 1826 ; Staff Surgeon, 4th Januaiy, 1839 ; 
Deputy-Inspector-General, 16th December, 1848 ; Inspector- 
General, 3rd December, 1818. Mr. Henry served with the 66th in 
the Peninsula, from May, 1811, to the close of the war. (War 
Medal with three dasps). He served with the Ist Battalion 
during the Nepaulese War of 1816-7 ; and in the Canadian 
Reb^on of 1837-8. Mr. Henry was present in St. Helena during 
the last four years of Napoleon Bonaparte's life ; and after his 
death was charged with the duty of preparing the bulletin of the 
post-mortem appearance of the body, which was published by the 
British Government. See pp. 78 and 80. 

Hollter, Lieutenant and Quarter-Master Walter. — Quarter- 
Master, 18th June, 1881. Served with the 66th in the Afghan 
War of 1879-80, and took part in the defence of Kandahar, and 
was present at the battle of Kandahar. Medal with clasp, 
page 98. 

Digitized by 



Jaoeson, Major-General Alexander CosBT.-Major-General Jackson 
entered the Army as an Ensign in the 40th Foot, in July, 1799. 
He embarked with that corps for Toulon, in 1793, but a fever 
breaking out on board the transports, they returned to Plymouth, 
where the 40th disembarked. In March, 1794, Jackson was 
promoted to a company in the old 94th, (Lord Hutchinson's 
regiment), and in the following year he obtained his Majority. 
In March, 1798, the 94th was reduced, and the officers placed on 
half-pay. Major Jackson was, however, reappointed to the 40th, 
and served with that regiment during the Helder expedition ; also 
in Minorca ; and in Sir Ralph Abercrombie's unsuccessful attack 
on Cadiz. In July, 1803, Major Jackson was appointed to the 
67th, and . served in India until 1810, when he obtained the 
Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the 66th. Colonel Jackson joined the 
66th in Ceylon, and then held several important commands. In 
June, 1813, he was appointed Major-General, and was subsequently 
employed in Caiiada. 

Kellt, Lieutenant-Colonel Richard.— Lieutenant, 41st Foot, 12th 
January, 1799 ; Captain, 66th Foot, 6th March, 1806 : Major, 4th 
Ceylon Regiment, 6th December, 1810 ; Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, 
3rd August, 1815 ; Major, 83rd Foot, 1st January, 1818. This 
officer, while serving as a Lieutenant in the 41st, was placed on 
half-pay on the reduction of the Army after the peace of Amiens. 
On war again breaking out, he was posted to the 67th, and shortly 
afterwards he obtained permission to raise a company. Having 
obtained the required number of men — chiefly from amongst hia 
father's tenantry in Ireland — he was gazetted Captain, and posted 
to the 2nd Battalion 66th. When the battalion embarked fdr 
Portugal in March, 1809, Captain Kelly was senior Captain ; and 
the lieutenant-Colonel (Sir Charles Wale) being employed on the 
Staff in the West Indies, the battalion was commanded by Major 
Murray ; Major Richard Lloyd being the junior Major. Lloyd 
was drowned on the march to Cork, (page 29) so the battalion 
landed in Portugal with only one Field officer, and thus Captain 
Kelly had to peiiorm the duties of Major. At the passage of the 
Douro the battalion was taken into action by Major Murray, and 
he being severely wounded, the command devolv^ upon Captain 
Kelly. Captain Kelly retained the command for nearly two years, 
and took the 66th into action at Talavera, where he was wounded 
by the fragment of a shell, but did not quit the field (pages 37 and 
44). For his services at Talavera, Captain Kelly was specially 
recommended for " a Majority, (not a brevet but a iiibstantive 
Majority,) but was, to his great regret, posted to the 4th Ceylon 
Regiment. Though his commission as Major bore date of 6th 
December, 1810, he did not relinquish command of .the 2nd 
Battalion 66th, until early in the following year, and so wag 
present at the battle of Busaco, and also in the lines of Torres 
Yedras. On his leaving the 66th, the officers of the 2nd Battalion 

Digitized by 


150 THE 66th begiment. 

presented Major Kelly with a silver mounted Sword, as " a nuirh 
of ifidr high esteem and regoflrd^ and to return their acknowledgements 
for his kindness to them while they had the happiness of serving 
under his commamdJ*' Major Kelly received the Gold Medal for 
Talavera, but died before the issue of the Peninsular War Medal — 
to which he would have been entitled, together with three clajsps 
for the Douro, Talavera, and Busaoo. 

Major Kelly subsequently distinguished himself in Ceylon, during 
the suppression of the Kandyan rebellion, for which he received a 
highly complimentary letter from Sir Edward Barnes. 

Kellt, Ensign. — This officer, who was the youngest brother of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Kelly, (see above) joined the 66th shortly before 
Talavera. At the battle of Talavera, Ensign Kelly carried the 
Regimental- Colour ; which was shot through, though he escaped 
without a wound. Mr. Kelly, being of a delicate constitution, 
could not stand the hardships of the campaign, and being left 
behind in hospital, he fell into the hands of the French, and died a 
prisoner of war. 

Lynoh, Captain Hyacinth.— 2nd Lieutenant, 9th July, 1879 ; Lieu- 
tenant, 10th April, 1880 ; Captain, 15th December, 1884. Served 
on the Afghan War of 1879-80; including action at" Girishk ; 
battle of Maiwand, (wounded, see page 111,) defence of Kandahar. 
Mentioned in despatches, {London Gazette, 19th November, 1880). 
, MedaL Also with the 1st Battalion Royal Berks in Soudan 
Expedition, 1885, and fought in the action of Tofrek. Medal and 
2 clasps. 

L'EsTRANOE, Lieutenant. — Wounded at Albuhera. (p. 56.) 

Mc Math, Captain W. H. — Ensign, 22nd August, 1865 ; Lieutenant, 
Ist August, 1868 ; Captam, 14th April, 1877. Killed at Maiwand. 
See pp. 109-14. 

Mack, Ensign. — Wounded at Albuhera. See p. 56. 

Mc Cartht, Lieutenant Charles.— Wounded at Talavera and 
Albuhera. See pp. 44-56. 

MACKINNON, Major W. A. Daniel.— Ensign, 29th May, 1867 ; Lieu- 
tenant, 29th May, 1869; Captain, 13th April, 1879; Major, 14th 
April, 1883. Served in the Afghan War, 1879-80, march from 
Khelati-i-Ghilzai to Kandahar, relief of Kandahar, and battle of 
Ist September. Medal with clasp ; and bronze star. 

Digitized by 



MbllisSi Lieutenant G. Laurence. (Bombay Staff Corps). — 2nd 
Lieutenant, January, 1879 ; Lieutenant, 28th July, 1880. Served 
with the 66th Foot in the Afghan War, 1879-80, and was present 
at the battle of Maiwand and retreat to Kandahar. See pp. 
116, 17. 

MoBGAN, Lieutenant H. — Wounded and taken prisoner at Talavera. 
See p. 44. 

MoBRis, Lieutenant Apollos. — Wounded and taken prisoner at 
Talavera. See p. 44. 

MoKius, Lieutenant S. C. — Wounded at Talavera. See p. 44. 

Morris, Major Arthur. — After serving as a subaltern with the 73rd 
in India, from 1798 to 1803, this officer was promoted to a company 
in the 2nd Ceylon Regiment. Exchanging back to the 73rd, he 
brought it home in 1806. In 1809, he exchanged to the 2nd 
battalion 66th and accompanied it to Portugal, but the fatigue and 
hardships of the campaign so impaired his health that he was 
compelled to return to England. He then exchanged to the 2nd 
Garrison Battalion, and was for some years employed on the Staff 
as Major of Brigade. In 1814, he received a Brevet Majority, 
and was subsequently placed on half -pay. 

MuRPHT, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas. — Lieutenant, 8th January, 
1856; Captain, 5th August, 1870; Major, 1st July, 1881; Hon. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, 8th January, 1883. Served in the Koyal 
Artillery throughout the Eastern Campaign, from June, 1854 to 
January, 1856. Was present at Inkerman, and engaged in the six 
bombardments of Sebastopol, and was not absent from regular 
trench duty for a single day from first breaking ground to the end 
of the siege, (recommended for distinguished conduct). Served in 
the Turkish Contingent at Kertch, from January, 1856, to end of 
war. Medal with two clasps, and Turkish MedaL Lieutenant- 
Colonel Murphy is on retired pay. See page 94. 

MuRRAT, Colonel James Patrick, C.B. — Obtained an Ensigncy in the 
44th refifiment, 1796, and a Lieutenancy in 17 97. He was employed 
on regimental duty until May, 1798, when he was appointed 
Aide-de-camp to General D jn, with whom he continued until June, 
1799, when he joined Lieutenant-General Sir James Pultenejr, and 
served as Aide-de-camp to that officer during the campaign in 
North Holland. He was present in the actions of the 27th August, 
10th and 19th September, 2nd and 6th of October. On the 26th 
December, 1799, he obtained a company in the 9th Foot. He next 
served in the expedition to FerroL At the peace of 1802, he was 

Digitized by 


152 THE 66th begiment. 

placed on half -pay, and after studying for some time at the Royal 
Military College, was appointed to a company in the 66th Foot 
The 9th February, 1804, he obtained a Majority in the latter corps : 
the 25th May, 1809, he received the Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and was appointed Assistant-Quarter- Master-General in Ireland; 
and in November, 1809, Lieutenant-Colonel, 6th Garrison Battalion. 
He also served in Portugal, and received a severe wound at the 
passage of the Douro (see page 33) ; in 1813, 14 he was Assistant 
Adjutant-General in Ireland. The 12th August, 1812, he received 
the Brevet of Colonel. 

NiOHOLLS, Captain Augustus. — Ensign, 5th October, 1809; Lieu- 
tenant, 1st September, 1813; Captain, 17th March, 1837 ; Placed 
on half-pay, 17th March, 1837. Captain Nicholls served in the 
Peninsula with the 66th, from February, 1810, to the end of the 
war in 1814 ; including the battles of Busaco, Albuhera, Vittoria, 
Orthes, and Toulouse ; also the actions of Arroyo dos MolinoB 
Garris, and Aire. War Medal with clasps. * 

Nicholls, Majob-Gbnbral Gboboe.— Ensign, 26th June, 1799 ; 
lieutenant, 25th May, 1803; Captain, 23rd Februaiy, 1809; 
Major, 5th July, 1821 ; Lieutenant-Colonel; 10th January, 1837 ; 
Colonel, 11th November, 1851 ; Major-General, Slst August, 1855. 
Joined 2nd Battalion 66th Regiment, in Spain, 1811, and was 
severely wounded at Vittoria (see page 66), in skirmishing with 
the enemy as Captain of the light Company, (Medal with clasp). 
Subsequently he joined the 1st Battalion at St. Helena, and waa 
appointed Orderly Officer to Napoleon, and had charge of the 
Longwood Establishment during seventeen months. (Hart's 
Army List, 1856.) 

NiooL, Lieutenant-Colonel Chables.— Captain, 66th Foot, 26th 
June, 1799 ; Major, Srd April, 1806 ; Lieutenant-Colone]^ 13th 
June, 1811. This officer served with the 66th in Spain and 
Portugal, and after the battle of the Nive, succeeded to the 
command of the provisional battalion, composed of the Slst and 
66th, (pages 70 and 74). Commanded a Brigade during the 
Nepaulese War of 1816-17. (See p. 22). He subsequently 
commanded the 66th at St. Helena, (page 79) and took the 
regiment home in 1821. In 1827, Colonel Niool proceeded to 
Canada in command of the 66th. Page 81. 

Olivet, 2nd Lieutenant, Waltbb R.— 2nd lieutenant, 14th January, 
1880. Killed at Maiwand. (See pp. 109, 10-14.) 

Oliveb, Major Charles Valentine.— Ensign, 8th September, 1864 ; 
lieutenant, 29th February, 1856; Captain, 21st April, 1863; 
Major, 24th February, 1878. Died at Kandahar. See p. 135. 

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Pabkb, Lieutenant-Colonel William.— Ensign, 1791 ; Lieutenant, 
1793 ; Captain, 1797 ; Major, 1811 ; Brevet-Lieutenant-Oolonel, 
12th August, 1719. Colonel Parke first saw service with the 
53rd Foot, in the West Indies ; from whence he returned home in 
time to take part in the suppression of the Irish rebellion of 1798. 
After serving in the Helder expedition ; in the Duke of York's 
campaign in North Holland; and in Egypt, under Sir Ralph 
Abercrombie ; Parke accompanied his regiment to Portugal, and 
was present at the battle of Vimiera ; &isx> during Moore's retreat 
through Spain, and was wounded at Corunna. He subsequently 
served in the Walcheren expedition, and again accompanied the 
53rd to the Peninsula, in 1811. In 1812, he exchanged — as Major — 
into the 2nd Battalion 66th, and proceeded with the battalion to 
St Helena, where he served until the reduction of the battalion in 
1817, when he was placed on half-pay. 

"Basdy, Lieutbnant T.— Wounded at Talavera. (See p. 44.) 

Preston, Suboeon-Majob Alexander Francis, M.B. — Assistant- 
Surgeon, 30th September, 1863 ; Surgeon, Ist March, 1873 ; 
Surgeon-M^jor, 28th April, 1876. Mr. Preston served with the 
66th in the Afghan War of 1879-80, and was present at the battle 
of Maiwand, (severely wounded), the action of Girishk, and siege 
of Kandahar. Mentioned in despatches. Medal. See page 107. 

QuARBT, Lieutenant-Colonel John.— Ensign, 29th October, 1861 ; 
Lieutenant, 4th March, 1868; Captain, 15th August, 1875; 
Brevet-Major, 2nd March, 1881; Major 1st July, 1881; Hon- 
Lieutenant-Colonel, 16th October, 1884. Served with the 66th in 
the Afghan War, in 1879-80, and was present at the affairs on the 
Helmund against the Wali's mutineers, and at Girishk; at the 
battle of Maiwand and retreat to Kandahar ; the defence of 
Kandahar ; including the sortie of the 16th August ; and at the 
battle of Elandahar. Mentioned in three despatches. Brevet of 
Major, Medal with dasp. See pp. 112, 13, and 115, 16, and 131. 

Batner, Lieutenant Maurioe E.— Lieutenant, 11th February, 1875. 
Killed at Maiwand, when Acting- Adjutant of the 66th. See p» 

Beadt, Colonel John Tobin. — Ensign, 9th September, 1854; 
lieutenant, 28th August, 1857; Captain, 28th August, 1863; 
Brevet- Major, 1st October, 1877; Major, 14th November, 1879; 
Lieutenant-Colonel, 1st July, 1881; Colonel, Ist July, 1885. 
Served with the 66th in the Afghan War of 1880, and was present 
in the engagements at Girishk and Maiwand, and in the defence of 
Kandahar, (Medal) (pp. 113, 114, &;c.) Betired from command of 

regiment, April, 1887 

Digitized by 


164 THE 66th begiment. 

Roberts, Captain Halter.— Ensign, 8th February, 1865 ; Lieutenant, 
19th December, 18«ftj Captain, 14th November, 1879. Killed at 
Maiwand. See p. 111-14 

Ross, Colonel John, C.B. — ^Appoibt^d Lieutenant in the 52nd Foot 
the 8th May, 1796 ; Captain, the H^ of January, 1800 ; Major, 
the 15th of August, 1804 ; Lieutenant-€!(4pnel in the Army, the 
28th X){ January, 1808 ; Lieutenant- Colonerth4be 52nd Foot, the 
18th of February, 1801 ; Lieutenant-Colonel in this W^ Foot, the 
18th July, 1814 ; Colonel the 4th of June, 1814. This «ftcer 
commanded the 52nd Regiment at the battle of Yimiera, and M^ 
name was mentioned in the Duke of Wellington's despatch. He 
was appointed the 20th of August, 1811, Deputy Adjutant-Greneral 
in Ireland ; and on the 12th of August, 1819, Commandant of the 
Depdt at the Isle of Wight. 

Sbaton, General Lord (Sir John Colborne,) G.C.B., G.C.M.G., 
G.C.H.— Appointed Ensign, 20th Foot, 10th July, 1794; Lieu- 
tenant, 20th Foot, 4th September, 1795 ; Captain-Lieutenant, 
11th August, 1799; Captain, 12th .January, 1800; Lieutenant- 
Colonel, 6th Garrison Battalion, 2nd February, 1809 ; Lieutenant- 
Colonel, 66th Foot, 2nd November, 1809 ; Lieutenant-Colonel, 
62nd Foot, 18th July, 1811 ; Colonel by Brevet, 4th June, 1814 ; 
Major-General, 27th March, 1826 ; Lieutenant-General, 28th June, 
1858 ; General, 20th June, 1854 ; Colonel, 2nd Life Guards, 24th 
March, 1854. This officer served with the army in Spain and 
Portugal ; in the first campaign he served on the staff of Sir 
John Moore, whose distinguished opinion of him is recorded in 
Major-General Anderson's letter. He was present at the battles 
of Corunna and Albuhera ; siege of Ciudad Rodrigo ; battles of 
Nivelle, Nive, Orthes and Toulouse. At Corunna he was Military 
Secretary to the Commander-in-Chief. He also served in Flanders, 
and was present at the battle of Waterloo. For his distinguished 
services Sir John Colborne was created a Peer, under the title of 
Baron Seaton, in 1839. Lord Seaton was decorated with the Gold 
Cross and three clasps for Corunna, Albuhera, Ciudad Rodrigo, 
(where he was severely wounded) Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, Toulouse. 

Shrewbridge, Lieutenant L.— Killed at Albuhera. (Page 56.) 

St. George, Lieutenant S.— Wounded at Albuhera. (p. 56.) 
Steel, Captain. — Died of wounds received at Talavera. (p. 44.) 

Stevens, Captain H. William.— Ensign, 31st August, 1804 ; Lieu- 
tenant, 13th June, 1805 ; Captain, 26th February, 1807 ; placed on 
half-pay, 25th February, 1816. Served in the Peninsula with the 
66th, and was present at the passage of the Douro ; when, after 

Digitized by 



Major Mttrray was wounded, he acted as field officer. This he 
continued to do until the battle of Talavera, where his horse was 
Bhot under him and he himself was severely wounded. (See p. 
44). He afterwards fell into the hands of the French, and was 
tskken to France, and there detained until the peace of 1814. 
Medal and clasp. 

UssHBB, LiEUTENANT-OoLONEL. — Served with the 66th in the Nepaul 
Campaign of 1816,17. 

Vjebnon, Lieutenant Genebal, Henbt Charles Edwabd, C.B.— 
Ensign, 8th November, 1798 ; Lieutenant, 26th September, 1799 ; 
Captain, 17th July, 1801 : Major, 13th June, 1811 ; Lieutenant- 
Colonel, 4th June, 1813 ; Colonel, 22nd July, 1830 ; Major- 
General, 23rd November, 1841 ; Lieutenant-General, 11th Novem- 
ber, 1851. Served in the Peninsula in 1808, 9 as D.A.A.G. 
Subsequently in the same capacity until June, 1811, and was 
present at Talavera. Served with the 2nd BattisJion 66th at the 
surprise of a French Division at Arroyo dos Molinos, and other 
operations until the capture of Badajoz. With the ''Queen's'' at 
the reduction of the Forts and battle of Salamanca, (severely 
wounded). Served, in command of • his regiment, preceding, during, 
and subsequent, to the siege of Burgos. Gold Medal for Salamanca, 
and Silver war Medal, with one dasp, for Talavera. (Hart's 
Army List, 1856.) 

Vincent, Major-General John.— Ensign, 66th Foot, 1782; Lieu- 
tenant, August, 1782 ; Captain, 49th Foot, 15th December, 1783 ; 
Major, 1st September, 1795 ; Lieutenant-Colonel, 1st January, 
1800 ; Colonel, 25th July, 1810 ; Major-General, 4th June, 1813. 
This officer served with the 49th at the taking of St. Domingo ; 
also in the expedition to the Helder, and subsequently in the 
expedition to Copenhagen. He afterwards served for many years 
in Canada. 

Wale, Major-General Sir Charles, K.C.B.~En8ign, June, 1779; 
Lieutenant, 1780 ; Captain, 1786 ; Brevet-Major, Ist Januaiy, 
1794 ; Brevet- Lieutenant-Colonel, 1st January, 1798 ; Colonel, 
25th April, 1808 ; Major-General, 4th June, 1811. Sir Charles 
Wale first saw service with the 97th, during the defence of 
Gibraltar, in 1782. Li 1799, he served a campaign in Holland, and 
in the spring of 1801, took command of the 67th at Jamaica. In 
June, 1808, he exchanged to the 66th, and commanded the 2nd 
Battalion until appointed Brigadier-General on the Staflf of the 
Windward Islands, (March, 1809). As Brigadier-General, he 
conmianded the reserve of Sir G. Beckwith's army at Guadaloupe, 
and with his brigade, stormed the heights of Matauba, on the 3rd 

Digitized by 



THE 66th regiment. 

Februaiy, 1810 ; when he received a severe wound. (Medal). On 
recovering from his wound, he was appointed to the command of 
Grande Terre, in Guadaloupe ; and subsequently succeeded to the 
sole command of that island. In 1812, he was appointed Grovemor 
of Martinique, which appointment he held until the island was 
surrendered so Louis xviii. 

Walker, Ensign. — Killed at Albuhera. Page 56. 

Whitnbt, LiBcrrENANT Nicholas.— Wounded at Talavera and Albuhera. 
pp. 44 and 56 


List op Opficees ust 1761. 




John La Faussille^ 


Hans Musgrave 


Charles Beauclerk 


George Daniel 


Thomas Crosby 


John Gillan 


William Boss 


Eobert Drew 


James Coates* 


Eobert St. Clair 


Andrew Agnew* 


Henry Goddard 

1 Colonel from 24th August, 1753, to 19th January, 1763. 
'Placed on half -pay, 1763. Appears on half -pay list of 66th Foot in 
* Those marked with an asterisk see Appendices L and IL 

Digitized by 






B. Wigmore Knight* 


Algernon Warren 


George Dansey 


George Beynolds 


John Barcas 


William Grierson 


William Gregory- 


William Hepburn 


David Scott* 


Isaac Smith 


Jocelyn Shawford 


Bichard Ellis 


David Ferguson . 


William Gatherwood 


Samuel Barker 


Francis Bindon 


Marshall Wright^ 


Andrew Parker 


John Gardiner 


John Beardsley^ 


Archer Pearson 


Hawtrey Humphries 


^ Appears on half -pay list 24th Foot in 1800. Placed on half -pay as 

Lieutenant, 1783. 
^ A Major David Scott was Captain of an Invalid Company in Jersey, 

in 1800. 
^ Fort Major of Dartxpouth in 1800. (Rank of Lieutenant). 
* Placed on half -pay as Lieutenant in 1763. Appears on half -pay 

list 66th Foot in 1800. 

Digitized by 


158 THE 66th iubgiment. 


Ensign John Parked 

Chaplain Nathaniel Bristed^ 

Adjutant John Barcas 
Quar.-Master William Hanson 

Surgeon James Douglas 

List op Opficebs, July, 1881. 

(Last Official List of the 66th Foot.) 


Colonel Tho. Henry Johnston, (General)^ 

Lieut.-Col. Somerville C. Hogge 

Major John Tobin Eeady* 

„ Eobert J. J. Stewart^® 

Captains Thomas Murphy* 

„ Thomas Harris* 

„ John Quarry (Major)* 

„ W. A. D. Mackinnon* 

John C. M. Pigott, P.S.C.i^ 

„ Adolphus J. Price* 

„ W.J. de la P. Beresford Pierse* 

7 A Lieutenant John Parke appears on half -pay list of 107 th Foot in 

^Mr. Bristed held the appointment of Chaplain of the 66th until 1792. 
' See list of Colonels. 

*® Retired with Honorary rank of Major-GreneraL 

* Those marked with an asterisk see Appendices L and II. 

Digitized by 





„ Henry S. Hassard* 

,, F. McCrae Bruce* 

„ William F. Marriott 

Lieutenant Charles Bury Adams 
Lieutenant Hon. Carnegie P. Jervis (I. of M.)^^ 
Granville de la M. Faunce* 
James W. H. Fitzgerald 
Charles Mackenzie Edwards* 
Hyacinth Lynch* 
William A. Lonergan 
George Laurence Melliss* 
Eeginald Bray* 
Frank McTier Bunny* 
Fred. S. Marsham (Adjutant) 
G. D. E. Williams 
2nd Lieutenant Sudlow Harrison 
„ Frederick A. Deare 

Quar. -Master Walter Hollyer* 

12 Viscount St. Vincent ; retired 1886. 

* Those marked with an asterisk see Appendices I. and IL 

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